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From: Andres Bauman
To: Steven Huter
Date: Mon, 6 Feb 1995 13:17:37 +0200 (EET)
Mr. Lippmaa asked me to answer to your message regarding information
about EE domain (see below).
> Please notify us of any changes/corrections.
(EE) Republic of Estonia
Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics
10 Ravala Blvd., EE0100 Tallinn
Republic of Estonia
Administrative Contact: Lippmaa, Endel
Voice: +372 2 441304
Fax: +372 2 440640
Technical Contact: Lippmaa, Jaak
Voice: +372 6 399003
Fax: +372 6 399001
Technical Contact: Bauman, Andres
Voice: +372 2 455795
Fax: +372 2 440640
> Could you also provide a brief update on recent computer networking
> developments and future plans for Estonia?
I will attach two documents. If you have more questions, please ask.
Andres Bauman | Internet: firstname.lastname@example.org
Institute of Chemical Physics | phone: 372-2-455795
and Biophysics | fax: 372-2-440640
Ravala pst. 10 |
EE0100, Tallinn, Estonia |
White paper on Estonian Data Networking
Tallinn, February 11, 1994
The aim of this paper is to give a short overview of present situation in data
networking, describe the EENet project, its operating environment, and future
projects together with possibilities to integrate with European projects and
Widespread networking started in Estonia in the beginning of 1990s. First
satellite connections from Tallinn and Tartu to Stockholm were established in
March 1992. Terrestrial leased line connections from Tallinn to Helsinki
followed in the end of May 1992. Tartu-Tallinn link was established in 1993.
This was followed by rapid development of local infrastructure and today the
network has over 400 permanently connected machines. Several hundred sites use
dial-up electronic mail connections. Estonia also acts as an East-West gateway
by linking Nordic countries with Latvia and Russia.
Wide spectrum of network users has created a situation whereby electronic
transmission of documents and distribution of information is becoming
commonplace within the academic, government and business communities. More and
more users demanding complex solutions, interconnection of LANs, MAN and WAN
services, and public services accessible via the network structure. INTERNET
access is the most widespread but not the only service available.
Services and structures available in Estonia include
EENet, the main academic network built around leased lines physical
network, campus networks and using TPC/IP protocol suite. It provides
access to INTERNET currently via two channels, 64 kbps Tallinn-Helsinki
connection and 64 kbps Tallinn-Stockholm satellite link. Latvia is also
linked to INTERNET via 64kbps Tallinn-Riga link. User base consists mainly
universities, research facilities, government offices, banks and SME's.
X.25, provided by ESTPAK, a subsidiary of Estonian Telephone Company.
International services are offered via Finnish Telebox. The service is
used by about 100 users including banks and big enterprises for
international traffic and access to commercial databases like TELERATE,
SPRINT offers its services using INMARSAT terminals via an Estonian
company Mainor-ELT. They have two nodes in Estonia, in Tallinn and Tartu.
FIDONET, consisting of roughly 30 active BBSes in Estonia with hundreds of
users scattered around Estonia. International access is provided by a node
EsPIE-Net is a fully commercial network provider offering X.400 services
with international TELEX and FAX gateways. It has connectivity to EUnet
and Relcom in Russia.
BANet is a cross border initiative offering network services mostly within
EEnet was instituted in 1993 by the Estonian Ministry for Culture and Education
to manage and coordinate academic data networking. EENet represents Estonian
academic networking interests in international community in addition of being
responsible for developing the network in Estonia.
Up to now academic institutions have developed networking activities on their
own. This has served the purpose by developing local infrastructure. The main
boosting factor has been the availability of international connections. Estonia
has currently several international links connecting the local academic network
to Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga and Moscow.
Now that these activities have acquired truly international character a certain
degree of coordination is needed. The Ministry of Culture and Education has
instituted a coordination committee involving representatives from ministry,
Tartu University, Tallinn Technical University, Institute of Chemical Physics
and Biophysic, Estionian Biocentre, Institute of Cybernetics and Estonian
Science Foundation. Its main purpose is to create an independent organization
to supervise networking activities, to build and manage trunk connections
between institutions and to manage long distance and international computer
links, organize training, seminars and conferences, to disseminate information
about networking and available services, to extend these to Estonian academic
institutions, etc. This organization is called EENet and it acts under the
auspices of Ministry as a legal entity. The Board of this organization includes
representatives in addition to the institutions listed above from the
Informatics Council and the PTT. The aim is to include everybody who has up to
now participated in building academic networks in Estonia and also to involve
major users. Financial support to EENet will be provided by the state budget
and user contributions.
Current projects of EENet are
Providing INTERNET access to High Schools and creating student support
nodes at schools;
Participation in joint projects under TEMPUS, PHARE, COPERNICUS, and
EUROMATH, TELESERV, ESATT, etc.;
Participation in building the BALTBONE infrastructure linking Finland,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland together with the NORDUNet Baltic
Establishment of BALTnet cross boarder network utilizing the BALTBONE
Preparation of lecture courses for university students in Tartu.
Short term projects of EENet include
Optimization and increasing of trunk/backbone topology and capacity within
Desing and establishment of LANs in university campuses besides Tartu
University and Tallinn Technical University, where the critical mass of
local network has been exceeded;
Establishment of public access nodes;
Installation of information servers for Client/Server applications (WWW,
WAIS, Whois, Gopher, Veronica, X.500, etc.);
Linking existing academic non-profit networks and commercial networks with
gateway services to provide wider access and interoperability between
research, business and industrial communities.
Long term projects of EENet include
Coordination and support in using standards accepted in EU countries to
facilitate easy integration with Europe (OSI, EDI/EDIFACT, etc);
Research into new transmission technologies and integrated solutions using
multistandard/multitechnology access to broadband networks (SDH, ATM,
ISDN, B-ISDN, GSM, DECT, VSAT, etc.) to provide flexible solutions in
Development of user friendly graphic interfaces and native language access
to databases and information servers;
Integration of conventional data networking applications into multimedia
solutions utilizing broadband metropolitan telephone and cable-TV
Networking Environment in Estonia
Rapid advent of academic networking has created a situation whereby the
benefits of high speed electronic data transfer are becoming both appealing and
affordable to the business community, especially the quickly developing world
of SMEs. Automated management systems, companywide interconnected LANs, terms
like Telemarketing and Telebanking are becoming commonplace also within the
Estonian business community. This has created a demand for public data networks
and access to international information structures. Most notable developments
in the area of meeting these demands are the major restructuring of the
Estonian PTT into a joint venture with Finland (Telecom Finland) and Sweden
(Telia Group) - Estonian Telephone Company, and the launching of several
private companies offering networking services and access to international
The other important area of network development involves government structures
and local governments. Estonian government has shown strong support towards
networking activities. The establishment of EENet under auspices of Ministry of
Culture and Education and providing it with direct funding from the state
budget is just one of the examples. Major policy issues in networking are
prepared by the National Informatics Council, the Estonian Science Council and
the National Science and Education Council. These structures decide also many
of the funding issues for individual projects. Estonia has also created a
certification mechanism for computer equipment vendors supplying equipment for
bigger projects. The state is also supporting major networking infrastructure
development projects linking local governments with digital trunk lines, and
establishment of relevant information management systems. Another important
project involves a distributed database management system for Estonian Customs
and Borderguard. These projects form an integral part of reform and lawmaking
process enabling Estonia to move towards a stable and democratic state.
This process has increased considerably the interest towards joint projects
with European Union. Currently, the Commission is mainly involved in
PHARE/TEMPUS projects in Estonia. New projects are being extended to Estonia
under COPERNICUS (ESATT and TELESERVE). The increase of projects supporting
businesses and the reform process can clearly be seen.
Such an increase in interaction between the EU and Estonia together with other
Baltic States is most welcome and will undoubtedly provide a direct channel
between respective business communities. This exchange has to be accompanied by
establishment of Business Advisory Centres which can also serve as Business
Communications Nodes. Once set up and connected with local network, these can
act as gateways between the EU and the target country. Such centrescan also
serve as testbed for new Value Added Services, facilitating better connections
between states. Direct connections to the EMPB would be advisable in countries
with rapidly developing local networking infrastructure like the Baltic States.
Estonia is currently establishing 2Mbps and wider metropolitan backbone
structures for commercial networks. First pilot project to link commercial
banks with 2Mbps backbone was launched in June 1993. This project is now in its
second phase, introducing the EDI/EDIFACT and preparing necessary software for
banking applications. This project is supported by Bank of Estonia.
The next important issue is using Business Communications Nodes to establish
R&D programmes to support common interface development for accessing and
sharing information with Pan-European networks. Projects like this should make
good use of the existing initiatives as set out in the 4th Framework Programme
for period 1994-98 and integrate local databases.
Major restructuring and overhaul of the PTT will also affect the data networks
and solutions for specific applications. Most notable changes will be the
introduction of fibre-optic cabling, digital switching and public ISDN basic
rate access to large number of customers. Adherence to common European
standards will be of extreme importance in introducing these news services.
First ISDN subscribers will be connected in March 1994.
EENet contact addresses:
Director: Enok Sein
Republic of Estonia
Phone: +372 34 33635
Fax: +372 34 35430
Board: Tiit Laasberg
Ministry of Culture and Education
Republic of Estonia
Phone: +372 2 682898
Fax: +372 6 311213
Academic Networking in Estonia
January, 29th, 1995.
Since 1992 has Estonia been using internet (on-line) services.
For now there are about 6000 people using internet daily.
Estonian Educational and Research Network - EENet
EENet is a nonprofit organisation assigned the task of coordinating
network development for educational, cultural and scientific purposes.
EENet is non-profit organization established and supported by
Ministry of Culture and Education.
EENet has proceeded from attitude that there is easy way to connect
an organisation to the world via electronic mail. To arrange full
internet connection that would satisfy the user it takes much more
time and funds. So have users divided to two groups.
E-mail service only
For now there has been arranged electronic mailboxes to more than
70 schools over Estonia, 10 research institutes situated mainly
in Tallinn but also in other places. There are also 5 foundations,
11 govermental organisations, but also 10 commercial enterprises and
8 other organisations (like Tallinn Zoo, confidence telephone etc.)
having UUCP connections to the network.
Full internet services
In Tallinn there are 2 universities, 3 research institutes,
1 secondary (high) school, 8 governmental organizations,
about 20 commercial enterprises and 4 other institutions
(Estonian Maritime Board) connected to net.
Main user in Tartu for internet is Tartu University using mostly
big servers for number of users. In current moment there are about
2500 students and personnell who have their own e-mail address.
There are also 3 scientific institutes
Institute of Physics,
Institute of Zoology and Botany,
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics located 23 km from Tartu),
Tartu Science Park
Eesti Telefon is providing Internet access (router ports) in
some towns - most important telephone exchanges in Estonia.
Number of users is still low.
Connection lines and network hardware
For now there are two lines directed to the world. There is 64 Kbps
sattellite link from Tallinn KBFI to Sweden KTH. Another 128 Kbps link
proceeds from Institute of Cybernetics in Tallinn and follows the
fiberoptics to Finland FUNET. This link is serving Latvia as well.
Lines inside Estonia
Between Tallinn and Tartu there is a 2 Mbps TCP/IP link (PTT!)
and 2*64 Kbps lines (EsData).
Both in Tallinn and Tartu most of lines for now are based on leased
lines and do not cross 19200 bps border. Some buildings located near
routers are connected via ethernet.
The backbones in Tallinn and Tartu are based on V.35 synchronous
links (2 Mbps and 128 Kbps)
There is also low number of users using radiolinks but this isn't used
Most of users connected to internet are using simple PC routers
but in the time there is proffessional equipment coming in use (CISCO
2000 to 4000 series). Transit lines are using only CISCOs. Still there are
More PC routers but number of CISCOs is rising fast.
For sharing access there are many large servers in use in Universities
and provider organizations. 5 bigger UUCP access centres are in use too.
Terminal- and communication servers are planned to use in regional
Information servers and archieves
WWW and GOPHER and FTP
There are about 10 bigger WWW and 10 Gopher servers established or in
work for now. About 6 bigger FTP servers are opened for users continously.
Some smaller servers are in use as well.
EENet's WWW server is located: http://www.eenet.ee
Works running currently
Estonia is going for changing network structure by replacing leased lines
and modems with fiber-optic links. Just now there are some works going on
in Tartu to dig down first first fiber-optic cables in Tartu University to
connect all university buildings together with fiber-optic link.
(Supported by University of Mynster, Germany).
Tallinn Technical University has own fiberoptics backbone running already
(supported by University of Darmstadt, Germany).
EENet is planning to set up new dial-up servers, that should come in use
in the beginning of 1995 both in Tallinn and Tartu. Some regional
communication centres will be launched in 1995.
Estonia is also taking part of two major projects supported by EC.
TELESERV is a project trying to wide access to internet. ESATT is a
project to figure out current state of networking in CET and having
recomendations to CEC for supporting some developing projects created here.
In the sphere of education there will be implemented the project for
distance-learning, Institute of Baltic Studies (IBC) where hopefully
also Latvia and Lithuania are going to join.
At the moment there are several organizations in Estonia providing
the network sevices.
because there are not separate network providers EENet network
specialists are building and managing network in Tartu.
They have good cooperation with KBFI people as well.
Joint company -
Institute of Cybernetics
They provide point-point channels (DXX-technology) and
TCP/IP and UUCP services (tcp/ip network called ESTNET)
11 academic users.
Main academic users are Institute of Cybernetics and
Tallinn Pedagogical University - full Internet access.
Others use e-mail service.
** Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics - KBFI
First 64 kbps (satellite) link to Internet in April 1992.
Infrastructure is built using customers support
Close cooperation with Department of Communication.
Main academic users who have full Internet access are:
Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,
Tallinn Technical University,
Institute of Economics,
National Library of Estonia,
Tallinn Technology High School (43. Sec. School).
90 sites are using UUCP-service (e-mail only).
up to 60 academic users,
more than 30 of them are (secondary) schools.
** Bongo Ltd.
Cooperation with Relcom (Moscow and St. Petersbourg)
and EUNet (Helsinki). Links to Helsinki (19.2 kbps),
Riga (16.8 kbps) and Moscow (16.8 kbps)
E-mail service based on UUCP technology.
Access to Telerate databases is based on tcp/ip.
About 100 clients.
** Eesti Telefon
Joint company -
They are developing tcp/ip backbone connecting most of
long distance switchboards/exchanges in Estonia.
This project foresees 2 Mbps and 64 Kbps links.
Providing virtual 64 Kbps channels is foreseen as well.