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Date: Tue Oct 20 16:04:45 1998
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FAQ: International E-mail accessibility (1997.09.10)

Archive-name: mail/country-codes
Last-modified: 1997/09/10

Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Codes
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
E-mail: <ocl@gih.nospam.com> (remove "nospam")
Release: 97.09.01

Release Notes:   a. Zaire (ZR) replaced with Democratic Republic
                    of Congo (CD)
                 b. Guinea Bissau (GW), Togo (TG),
                    Burundi (BI), Equatorial Guinea (GQ), Malawi (MW) 
                    and Gabon (GA) with FI
                 c. Gambia (GM) from Fido (F) to UUCP E-mail (*)
                 d. New contact data and distribution list address

This document is Copyright 1994-1997 by Olivier Crepin-Leblond. 
No part of this document may be reproduced in any commercial publication 
by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including 
recording, taping, or storage in an information retrieval system without 
prior written permission of the copyright holder.
It may however be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that
this copyright notice, its headers "Archive-name", "Last-modified",
and "Release" are not removed.

     Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding
E-mail to a distant country. The question is often of the type
"has that country got E-mail access ?". The following table is a
guide of country codes, showing the countries which have access to
Internet or general E-mail services.  The country codes have been
derived from the  International Organization for Standardization 
standard ISO 3166.  A country code is taken as a top level domain
once it is registered at rs.internic.net so *not* all country codes
listed are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is
also a section of general top level domains, based on the information
available at rs.internic.net.


1. Description of codes:

FI  stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
    and internet E-mail.
B   stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet
    DNS (Domain Name System) format. 
*   (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is
    not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
    connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency.
PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+) 
P   stands for provisional connection. (+)
    (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
       - address not verified or lack of address
       - UUCP dialup not active
       - net connection possible but not officially announced
       - premature official announcement of connection
F  stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means
   of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this
   case is stable and reliable.

2. Networks which are not included:

Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Military's unclassified portion of the
DDN - Data Defense Network) have computers all around the world. It is 
generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base, 
there will be a node reachable through gateways.

Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.),
or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations.
However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money.
Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those
are PRIVATE networks.

Many companies ( like U.S. Sprint, for example ) offer commercial 
services to many countries which are not readily available on 
the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to
someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone
to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. As a result,
those types of network have not been included in the list.
Although a user may RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, one 
may not be able to reply to it.

3. Updates:

    The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international
networking is such that the information contained in this document
may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
If you have any update (i.e. knowledge that a new country is connected),
please send a message to <ocl@gih.nospam.com> (remove "nospam"), 
including an example address from the country reached so that it can 
be verified.
Furthermore, if you are a connection provider or could provide a
low cost connection in a country, and are not listed as a provider in 
that country (see "FURTHER INFORMATION" section), please notify either
Randy Bush <randy@nsrc.org>, Steven Huter <sghuter@nsrc.org> or me (or
all three of us !).
NOTE: This doesn't include providers for North America. 
If you are a North American provider, then please DON'T contact us.

4. .US sites

    While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.

5. .edu, .com, etc.

    The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet 
access are marked accordingly. 

6. UK and GB domains

    UK stands for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. GB actually stands for Great Britain. GB is therefore a
subset of UK. In reality, the GB top level domain has been used mainly
for X.400 addressing of sites, while the UK top level domain is more
commonly used. While in the early nineties, there was an emphasis towards
X.400, and hence towards registration under the GB top level domain,
this policy does not stand anymore, and most sites in the UK are
now registered under the UK top level domain.

7. Further information column

     This column contains information as follows:

- E-mail address of a contact from which further information may be obtained
- Details of a gopher system that can be queried for further information
  in this case, look at Section 8: Where to find further information
- If no other information available: nameserver details, if any.
  This is the main nameserver as listed in the rs.internic.net database.
  Those often change as the network grows, and it is hard to keep track of
  all nameservers, but they should usually work. Nameservers can be 
  queried by users using nslookup. 

8. Where to find further information

  A number of sites run on-line information databases, mail-servers,
and gopher information systems where further information can be found.

- rs.internic.net
    Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the
  Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages"
  has registration records for top level domains. "whois" can be
  accessed by connecting interactively (telnet rs.internic.net),
  or via gopher (gopher rs.internic.net) or using the "whois"
  command available on some computer systems (whois -h rs.internic.net).
  Registration records for a domain are sometimes useful since they
  provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this domain
  and those may hence be able to provide further information.
  Whois can also be accessible by E-mailing mailserv@internic.net<br>
  and subject: whois <name/domain>

- gopher.ripe.net
    This is a gopher system run by ripe.net, the co-ordinator for
  European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding
  European IP, etc. It may be accessed either as "gopher gopher.ripe.net"
  or "telnet gopher.ripe.net" and logging-in appropriately. 
  It also has a "whois" database.

- GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal
  This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <lpress@dhvx20.csudh.edu>
  Archived documents are available by anonymous ftp from the 
  directory global_net at dhvx20.csudh.edu (  To 
  conserve bandwidth, the archive contains an abstract of each 
  document, as well as the full document. The preferred way
  to access the archive is via the Web at:

  In addition to the archive, there is a moderated GNET 
  discussion list.  
  To submit a document to the archive or subscribe to the moderated 
  discussion list, use the address gnet_request@dhvx20.csudh.edu.  

- BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
    Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around 
  the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order,
  send a message to LISTSERV@Bitnic.educom.edu (or LISTSERV@BITNIC for
  BITNET folks), no subject, and the command: 
  in the body of the message.
  A very long file of information on all international BITNET sites
  can be ftp'ed from Bitnic.educom.edu and is called BITEARN.NODES .
  It is more than 2Mb long.

- IANA, the Internet Assignment Authority Association
    This site keeps a list of country code registries at:
  It is very useful for getting in touch with registration
  services for each country.

- www.nsrc.org
    This Web system, maintained by the Network Startup Resource
  Center and PSGnet/RAINet contains perhaps the most comprehensive
  collection of information about country connectivity.
  It's top level reference is: http://www.nsrc.org/ and the 
  coloured maps held in http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/misc/bymap/world.html
  point to further information www.nsrc.org.
  A gopher system, "gopher.nsrc.org" is accessible through gopher. 
  For the gopher client impaired, one can telnet to gopher.nsrc.org 
  and login as gopher. 
  An important feature is an E-mail interface to access the information
  in the gopher system.
  Send E-mail to: server@gopher.nsrc.org
  any subject, and in the body of the message:

  send country/<country-code>

  Example: if you want further information about Brazil (country code BR)

  send country/BR

  Many thanks to Randy Bush <randy@psg.com> and to John Klensin
  <klensin@infoods.unu.edu> for setting-up this site and this
  collaborative effort.

9. Archiving

    Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:


(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access
    in some cases. 

The document is also retrievable by E-mail from rtfm.mit.edu by
sending an E-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu , blank subject line
and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes

The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using a
simple mail-server robot:
Send E-mail to: <robot@gih.com> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get mail/country-codes  in the body of your message.

The document is also distributed automatically once a month on a 
mailing list. To subscribe to that mailing list, send a message to:
country-codes-request@nsrc.org   with the command in the body of the 
message: subscribe 

The whole collection of documents (monthly releases since 1992 !) 
is available on:   gopher://gopher.nsrc.org:70/1m/oclbfaq/oclb 

10. World-Wide-Web (WWW) document

A sister document is available on the World Wide Web. It is based
on this FAQ, and has links to further information for each domain:


A set of clickable international colour-coded maps is available at:


The pages are kindly hosted by Imperial College in London as a service
to the Internet community.

Web references for Top-Level information servers for a particular country
should be sent to <ocl@gih.nospam.com> (remove "nospam"). Thanks to all 
who have helped !

ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains.


The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via
UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people
in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to
them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a
remote node in such a country asking "how's the weather there".
When it comes to money, people take things very seriously, especially
since funds are scarce. It is a matter of net etiquette to keep this
in mind. Junk mail sent to any node that has to pay a lot for its
telephone connection will clearly be dealt with HARSHLY and evasive
action may well be taken against those not respecting this notice.

Code    Country              Conn     Notes         Further information 
AD   Andorra                FI   *                            
AE   United Arab Emirates   FI   *                    
AF   Afghanistan(Islamic St.)
AG   Antigua and Barbuda    FI   *                     
AI   Anguilla               FI   *
AL   Albania                FI   *                    
AM   Armenia                FI   *    Ex-USSR
AN   Netherland Antilles    FI   *
AO   Angola (Republic of)   FI   *                    
AQ   Antarctica             FI   *    intermittent    luxor.cc.waikato.ac.nz
AR   Argentina              FI   *                    
AS   American Samoa
AT   Austria                FI B *                    
AU   Australia              FI   *                     
AW   Aruba                  FI   *                    
AZ   Azerbaijan             FI B *    Ex-USSR         
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina     FI   *     
BB   Barbados               FI   *                    
BD   Bangladesh             FI   *
BE   Belgium                FI   *                    
BF   Burkina Faso           FI   *                    
BG   Bulgaria               FI B *                    
BH   Bahrain                FI B *                    
BI   Burundi                FI   *
BJ   Benin                  FI   *
BM   Bermuda                FI   *   
BN   Brunei Darussalam      FI   *
BO   Bolivia                FI   *                    
BR   Brazil                 FI B *                    
BS   Bahamas                FI   *                    
BT   Bhutan
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana               FI   *                    
BY   Belarus                FI B *    Ex-USSR         
BZ   Belize                 FI   *                    
CA   Canada                 FI B *                   
CC   Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CD   Dem. Repub. of Congo  PFI   *
CF   Central African Rep.   FI   *
CG   Congo                       *                    
CH   Switzerland            FI   *                    
CI   Ivory Coast            FI   *                    
CK   Cook Islands                *
CL   Chile                  FI B *                    
CM   Cameroon               FI   *
CN   China                  FI   *                   
CO   Colombia               FI   *                     
CR   Costa Rica             FI   *                     
CU   Cuba                   FI   *                    
CV   Cape Verde
CX   Christmas Island
CY   Cyprus                 FI   *                    
CZ   Czech Republic         FI   *                   
DE   Germany                FI B *              
DJ   Djibouti               FI   *
DK   Denmark                FI   *                 
DM   Dominica               FI   *                    
DO   Dominican Republic     FI   *                    
DZ   Algeria                FI   *                    
EC   Ecuador                FI   *                    
EE   Estonia                FI   *                    
EG   Egypt                  FI B *                    
EH   Western Sahara
ER   Eritrea                     *                    
ES   Spain                  FI B *                
ET   Ethiopia               FI   *                    
FI   Finland                FI B *               
FJ   Fiji                   FI   *                     
FK   Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM   Micronesia             FI   *
FO   Faroe Islands          FI   *                    
FR   France                 FI B *                   
FX   France (European Ter.)           France Metropolitaine
GA   Gabon                  FI   *
GB   Great Britain (UK)     FI B *    X.400 & IP      ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
GD   Grenada                FI   *
GE   Georgia                FI   *    Ex-USSR         
GF   Guiana (Fr.)           FI   *                    
GG   Guernsey (Ch. Isl)     FI   *
GH   Ghana                  FI   *                    
GI   Gibraltar              FI   *
GL   Greenland              FI   *                    
GM   Gambia                      *                    
GN   Guinea                PFI   *    dial-IP         
GP   Guadeloupe (Fr.)       FI   *                    
GQ   Equatorial Guinea      FI   *
GR   Greece                 FI   *                   
GS   South Georgia  and
     South Sandwich Islands
GT   Guatemala              FI   *              
GU   Guam (US)              FI   *  in US domains     
GW   Guinea Bissau          FI   *
GY   Guyana                 FI   *
HK   Hong Kong              FI   *             
HM   Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN   Honduras               FI   *
HR   Croatia                FI B *                   
HT   Haiti                  FI   *                   
HU   Hungary                FI B *                 
ID   Indonesia              FI   *                    
IE   Ireland                FI   *               
IL   Israel                 FI B *             
IN   India                  FI B *                    
IM   Isle of Man            FI   *
IO   British Indian O. Terr.
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran                   FI B *                     
IS   Iceland                FI B *             
IT   Italy                  FI B *           
JE   Jersey (Ch. Isl.)      FI   *
JM   Jamaica                FI   *                    
JO   Jordan                 FI   *                    
JP   Japan                  FI B *                    
KE   Kenya                  FI   *                    
KG   Kyrgyz Republic        FI   *    Ex-USSR (in .su domain)
KH   Cambodia               FI   *
KI   Kiribati
KM   Comoros
KN   St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla     P                 
KP   Korea (North)               P                    
KR   Korea (South)          FI   *                   
KW   Kuwait                 FI   *    No BITNET       
KY   Cayman Islands         FI   *                    
KZ   Kazakstan              FI   *    Ex-USSR
LA   Laos
LB   Lebanon                FI   *                    
LC   Saint Lucia            FI   *               
LI   Liechtenstein          FI   *              
LK   Sri Lanka              FI   *                    
LR   Liberia                     *
LS   Lesotho                FI   *                    
LT   Lithuania              FI   *    Ex-USSR        
LU   Luxembourg             FI   *                 
LV   Latvia                 FI   *    Ex-USSR     
LY   Libya
MA   Morocco                FI   *                    
MC   Monaco                 FI   *
MD   Moldova                FI   *    Ex-USSR
MG   Madagascar             FI   *                    
MH   Marshall Islands
MK   Macedonia (former Yug.)FI   *                    
ML   Mali                   FI   *                    
MM   Myanmar
MN   Mongolia               FI   *                    
MO   Macau                  FI   *           
MP   Northern Mariana Isl.  FI   *
MQ   Martinique (Fr.)
MR   Mauritania                  *
MS   Montserrat
MT   Malta                  FI   * 
MU   Mauritius              FI   *                    
MV   Maldives               FI   *
MW   Malawi                 FI   *
MX   Mexico                 FI   *                    
MY   Malaysia               FI   *       
MZ   Mozambique             FI   *                    
NA   Namibia                FI   *                    
NC   New Caledonia (Fr.)    FI   *                    
NE   Niger                  FI   *
NF   Norfolk Island
NG   Nigeria                FI   F                    
NI   Nicaragua              FI   *                    
NL   Netherlands            FI B *                 
NO   Norway                 FI B *                 
NP   Nepal                  FI   *                    
NR   Nauru
NU   Niue
NZ   New Zealand            FI   *                
OM   Oman                   FI   *
PA   Panama                 FI B *                     
PE   Peru                   FI   *                    
PF   Polynesia (Fr.)        FI   *                    
PG   Papua New Guinea       FI   *             
PH   Philippines            FI   *                
PK   Pakistan               FI   *                    
PL   Poland                 FI B *             
PM   St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN   Pitcairn
PR   Puerto Rico (US)       FI B *                
PT   Portugal               FI   *                   
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay               FI   *
QA   Qatar                  FI   *
RE   Reunion (Fr.)          FI   *    In .fr domain  
RO   Romania                FI B *                 
RU   Russian Federation     FI B *    Ex-USSR         
RW   Rwanda                      F    currently cut   
SA   Saudi Arabia           FI B *    dial-ip         
SB   Solomon Islands        FI   *
SC   Seychelles             FI   *                    
SD   Sudan                  FI   *                   
SE   Sweden                 FI B *               
SG   Singapore              FI   *            
SH   St. Helena
SI   Slovenia               FI   *                 
SJ   Svalbard & Jan Mayen IsFI   *     in .no domain
SK   Slovakia (Slovak Rep)  FI   *                 
SL   Sierra Leone                *                    
SM   San Marino             FI   *
SN   Senegal                FI   *                    
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname               FI   *                    
ST   St. Tome and Principe
SU   Soviet Union           FI B *    Still used.     
SV   El Salvador            FI   *                          
SY   Syria
SZ   Swaziland              FI   *                    
TC   Turks & Caicos Islands
TD   Chad                        *
TF   French Southern Terr.
TG   Togo                   FI   *                    
TH   Thailand               FI   *                    
TJ   Tadjikistan                 *    Ex-USSR         
TK   Tokelau      
TM   Turkmenistan           FI   *    Ex-USSR         
TN   Tunisia                FI   *                    
TO   Tonga                  FI   *
TP   East Timor
TR   Turkey                 FI B *                    
TT   Trinidad & Tobago      FI   *                    
TV   Tuvalu
TW   Taiwan                 FI   *                     
TZ   Tanzania               FI   *                    
UA   Ukraine                FI   *                    
UG   Uganda                 FI   *                    
UK   United Kingdom         FI B *    ISO 3166 is GB  
UM   US Minor outlying Isl.
US   United States          FI   *    see note (4)   
UY   Uruguay                FI   *                    
UZ   Uzbekistan             FI   *    Ex-USSR
VA   Vatican City State     FI   *                    
VC   St.Vincent & Grenadines     P                 
VE   Venezuela              FI   *              
VG   Virgin Islands (British)
VI   Virgin Islands (US)    FI   *                    
VN   Vietnam                     *                    
VU   Vanuatu                FI   *                    
WF   Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS   Western Samoa          FI   *
YE   Yemen                  FI   *
YT   Mayotte
YU   Yugoslavia             FI   *     
ZA   South Africa           FI   *                    
ZM   Zambia                 FI   *    intermittent    
ZR   Dem. Rep. of Congo    PFI   *    replaced by CD
ZW   Zimbabwe               FI   *                    

See Note [5] for the next top level domains (rs.internic.net):

ARPA Old style Arpanet           *    alias still works ns.nic.ddn.mil
COM  Commercial             FI   *                    telnet 
EDU  Educational            FI B *                    telnet 
GOV  Government             FI   *                    telnet 
INT  International field    FI   *                    ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
MIL  US Military            FI   *                    ns.nic.ddn.mil
NET  Network                FI   *                    telnet 
ORG  Non-Profit OrganizationFI   *                    telnet 

DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release. 
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.

Olivier MJ Crepin-Leblond, PhD  |-----> Global Information Highway Limited
Phone: +44 (0)956 84 1113  | Always 60 seconds |  E-mail:  <ocl@gih.com>
Fax  : +44 (0)171 937 7666 | ahead of the past |  Web: http://www.gih.com/