Date: Tue Oct 20 16:04:51 1998
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- Subject: top-level-domains 92.12.3
- From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond) (Olivier M.J.
- Date: Fri, 4 Dec 1992 19:24:41 GMT
- Organization: Imperial College, London, UK.
International Standard ISO 3166 Names
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
Release Note: a. I am including some domain names with a P tag.
This is either because I have not yet been able
to verify the validity of the domain, or that
the domain has been provisionally accepted but
not officially used yet or connected.
b. New up-to-date experimental mailserver
Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding
email to a distant country. The question is often of the type
"has that country got email access ?". The following table is a
guide of top-level country names, showing the countries which have
access to internet or general email services. The top-level country
codes have been derived from the International Standards Organisation
international standard ISO 3166, except for United Kingdom which should
be called Great Britain (GB) instead of UK. The field GB is used mainly
in the X.400 addressing of United Kingdom sites.
1. Description of codes:
- FI stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
and internet email.
- B stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet
DNS (Domain Name System) format.
- * (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by email. If this is
not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for continuity.
- PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+)
- P stands for provisional connection. (+)
(+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
- address not verified or lack of address
- domain connected but not officially announced
- premature official announcement of connection
2. Networks which are not included:
Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Army) have computers all around the
world. It is generally possible to assume that wherever there is
a U.S. base, there will be a node reachable through gateways.
Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.),
or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations.
However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money.
Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those
are PRIVATE networks.
Many companies (like U.S. Sprint or Compuserve) offer commercial
services to many countries which are not readily available on
the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections.
Those types of network have not been included because email and
network access from Internet is sometimes barred for financial reasons.
Although a user may RECEIVE email from a user on those networks, one
may not be able to reply to it.
Some hobbyists have put together networks using their PCs which store
and forward email to remote locations. This is the case of FIDONET
users. Some FIDO nodes apparently exist throughout Africa, the Middle-
East, etc. Those have not been included since the forwarding of email
is to the discretion of the SYSADMINS of the forwarding systems and,
once again, it costs money.
The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international
networking is such that the information contained in this document
may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
If you have any update (ie: knowledge that a new country is connected),
please send a message to <email@example.com>, including an example address
from the country reached so that it can be verified.
4. .US sites
While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.
5. .edu, .com, etc.
The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet
access are marked accordingly. However, this doesn't mean that *all*
of those domains have full internet access. For example,
only a small proportion of .mil sites have full internet access. The
same is true for .com sites, for example.
Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:
pit-manager.mit.edu (220.127.116.11) directory: /usenet/news.answers
ftp.uu.net (18.104.22.168) directory: /usenet/news.answers
lth.se (22.214.171.124) directory: /archive2/netnews/news.answers
unix.hensa.ac.uk (126.96.36.199) directory: /pub/uunet/usenet/news.answers
The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using an
experimental simple mail-server that I have setup from my account.
Send email to: <firstname.lastname@example.org> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get top-level-domains in the body of your message.
Please use only lowercase letters.
This server will recognise *most* addresses.
International Standard ISO 3166 Names
Domain Country Connection Notes
AE United Arab Emirates
AG Antigua and Barbuda *
AM Armenia Ex-USSR
AN Netherland Antilles
AQ Antarctica FI *
AR Argentina FI B *
AS American Samoa
AT Austria FI B *
AU Australia FI *
AZ Azerbaidjan Ex-USSR
BA Bosnia-Herzegovina Ex-Yugoslavia
BB Barbados *
BE Belgium FI B *
BF Burkina Faso
BG Bulgaria *
BH Bahrain B * Gulfnet
BN Brunei Darussalam
BO Bolivia P
BR Brazil FI B *
BS Bahamas *
BV Bouvet Island
BY Bielorussia Ex-USSR
BZ Belize P
CA Canada FI B *
CC Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF Central African Rep.
CH Switzerland FI B *
CI Ivory Coast
CK Cook Islands
CL Chile FI B *
CN China *
CO Colombia B *
CR Costa Rica B *
CS Czechoslovakia FI B *
CV Cape Verde
CX Christmas Island
CY Cyprus B *
DE Germany FI B *
DK Denmark FI B *
DO Dominican Republic P
DZ Algeria B *
EC Ecuador FI B *
EE Estonia FI * Ex-USSR also via .su domain
EG Egypt B *
EH Western Sahara
ES Spain FI B *
FI Finland FI B *
FJ Fiji *
FK Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FO Faroe Islands
FR France FI B *
FX France (European Ter.) ???
GB Great Britain (UK) FI * X.400 address gateway
GE Georgia Ex-USSR
GP Guadeloupe (Fr.)
GQ Equatorial Guinea
GF Guyana (Fr.)
GR Greece FI B *
GT Guatemala P
GU Guam (US)
GW Guinea Bissau
HK Hong Kong FI B *
HM Heard & McDonald Isl.
HR Croatia PFI * Ex-Yugoslavia via .yu
HU Hungary FI B *
ID Indonesia *
IE Ireland FI B *
IL Israel FI B *
IN India FI B *
IO British Indian O. Terr.
IS Iceland FI *
IT Italy FI B *
JP Japan FI B *
KG Kirgistan Ex-USSR
KN St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla P
KP Korea (North)
KR Korea (South) FI B *
KW Kuwait PFI B * No computers for Gulfnet(B)
KY Cayman Islands
KZ Kazachstan Ex-USSR
LC Saint Lucia P
LK Sri Lanka P
LT Lithuania * Ex-USSR
LV Latvia * Ex-USSR
MD Moldavia Ex-USSR
MH Marshall Islands
MO Macau P
MP Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ Martinique (Fr.)
MX Mexico FI B *
MY Malaysia *
MZ Mozambique P
NA Namibia *
NC New Caledonia (Fr.)
NF Norfolk Island
NI Nicaragua P
NL Netherlands FI B *
NO Norway FI B *
NT Neutral Zone
NZ New Zealand FI *
PF Polynesia (Fr.)
PG Papua New Guinea *
PK Pakistan *
PL Poland FI B *
PM St. Pierre & Miquelon
PT Portugal FI B *
PR Puerto Rico (US) FI B *
PY Paraguay *
RE Reunion (Fr.) FI * In .fr domain
RO Romania P Future BITNET connection
RU Russian Federation Ex-USSR
SA Saudi Arabia B * GulfNet
SB Solomon Islands
SE Sweden FI B *
SG Singapore FI B *
SH St. Helena
SI Slovenia PFI * Ex-Yugoslavia also via .yu
SJ Svalbard & Jan Mayen Is
SL Sierra Leone
SM San Marino
ST St. Tome and Principe
SU Soviet Union FI B * Still used.
SV El Salvador
TC Turks & Caicos Islands
TF French Southern Terr.
TH Thailand FI *
TJ Tadjikistan Ex-USSR
TM Turkmenistan Ex-USSR
TN Tunisia FI B *
TP East Timor
TR Turkey B *
TT Trinidad & Tobago
TW Taiwan FI B *
UA Ukraine * Ex-USSR via .su domain
UK United Kingdom FI B * ISO 3166 code is GB
UM US Minor outlying Isl.
US United States FI * .us sites NOT on BITNET (4)
UY Uruguay *
UZ Uzbekistan Ex-USSR
VA Vatican City State
VC St.Vincent & Grenadines P
VE Venezuela *
VG Virgin Islands (British)
VI Virgin Islands (US)
WF Wallis & Futuna Islands
YU Yugoslavia FI B * Bitnet not at the moment
ZA South Africa FI *
ZW Zimbabwe *
See Note  for the next fields:
ARPA Old style Arpanet * alias still works !!!
COM Commercial FI *
EDU Educational FI B *
GOV Government FI *
INT International field FI * used by Nato
MIL US Military FI *
NATO Nato field * being replaced by .int
NET Network FI *
ORG Non-Profit OrganizationFI *
DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release.
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.
Affiliation to Imperial College is given for identification purposes only.
Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond, Digital Comms. Section, Elec. Eng. Department
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BT, UK
Internet/Bitnet: <email@example.com> - Janet: <firstname.lastname@example.org>