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Date: Tue Oct 20 16:04:51 1998
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top-level-domains 92.12.3

Archive-name: top-level-domains
Last-modified: 1992/12/4

International Standard ISO 3166 Names
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
email: <ocl@ic.ac.uk>
Release: 92.12.3

Release Note: a. I am including some domain names with a P tag.
                 This is either because I have not yet been able
                 to verify the validity of the domain, or that
                 the domain has been provisionally accepted but
                 not officially used yet or connected.
              b. New up-to-date experimental mailserver 

      Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding
email to a distant country. The question is often of the type
"has that country got email access ?". The following table is a
guide of top-level country names, showing the countries which have
access to internet or general email services. The top-level country
codes have been derived from the International Standards Organisation
international standard ISO 3166, except for United Kingdom which should
be called Great Britain (GB) instead of UK. The field GB is used mainly
in the X.400 addressing of United Kingdom sites.


1. Description of codes:

- FI stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
and internet email.
- B stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet
DNS (Domain Name System) format. 
- * (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by email. If this is
not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for continuity.
- PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+) 
- P stands for provisional connection. (+)
   (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
       - address not verified or lack of address
       - domain connected but not officially announced
       - premature official announcement of connection

2. Networks which are not included:

Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Army) have computers all around the
world. It is generally possible to assume that wherever there is
a U.S. base, there will be a node reachable through gateways.

Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.),
or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations.
However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money.
Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those
are PRIVATE networks.

Many companies (like U.S. Sprint or Compuserve) offer commercial 
services to many countries which are not readily available on 
the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections.
Those types of network have not been included because email and
network access from Internet is sometimes barred for financial reasons. 
Although a user may RECEIVE email from a user on those networks, one 
may not be able to reply to it.

Some hobbyists have put together networks using their PCs which store
and forward email to remote locations. This is the case of FIDONET
users. Some FIDO nodes apparently exist throughout Africa, the Middle-
East, etc. Those have not been included since the forwarding of email 
is to the discretion of the SYSADMINS of the forwarding systems and,
once again, it costs money.

3. Updates

    The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international
networking is such that the information contained in this document
may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
If you have any update (ie: knowledge that a new country is connected),
please send a message to <ocl@ic.ac.uk>, including an example address
from the country reached so that it can be verified.

4. .US sites

    While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.

5. .edu, .com, etc.

    The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet 
access are marked accordingly. However, this doesn't mean that *all*
of  those  domains  have  full  internet  access.   For   example,
only a small proportion of .mil sites have full internet access. The
same is true for .com sites, for example.  

6. Archiving

    Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:

pit-manager.mit.edu ( directory: /usenet/news.answers
ftp.uu.net          ( directory: /usenet/news.answers
lth.se            ( directory: /archive2/netnews/news.answers
unix.hensa.ac.uk   ( directory: /pub/uunet/usenet/news.answers

The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using an
experimental simple mail-server that I have setup from my account.
Send email to: <ocl@ic.ac.uk> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get top-level-domains   in the body of your message.
Please use only lowercase letters.
This server will recognise *most* addresses.

International Standard ISO 3166 Names

Domain    Country             Connection         Notes
AD        Andorra
AE        United Arab Emirates
AF        Afghanistan
AG        Antigua and Barbuda         *          
AI        Anguilla
AL        Albania
AM        Armenia                                Ex-USSR
AN        Netherland Antilles 
AO        Angola
AQ        Antarctica             FI   *
AR        Argentina              FI B *
AS        American Samoa
AT        Austria                FI B *
AU        Australia              FI   *
AW        Aruba
AZ        Azerbaidjan                            Ex-USSR
BA        Bosnia-Herzegovina                     Ex-Yugoslavia
BB        Barbados                    *          
BD        Bangladesh
BE        Belgium                FI B *
BF        Burkina Faso
BG        Bulgaria                    *
BH        Bahrain                   B *          Gulfnet
BI        Burundi
BJ        Benin
BM        Bermuda
BN        Brunei Darussalam
BO        Bolivia                     P
BR        Brazil                 FI B *
BS        Bahamas                     *          
BT        Buthan
BV        Bouvet Island
BW        Botswana
BY        Bielorussia                            Ex-USSR
BZ        Belize                      P           
CA        Canada                 FI B *
CC        Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF        Central African Rep.
CG        Congo
CH        Switzerland            FI B *
CI        Ivory Coast
CK        Cook Islands
CL        Chile                  FI B *
CM        Cameroon
CN        China                       *
CO        Colombia                  B *
CR        Costa Rica                B *
CS        Czechoslovakia         FI B *
CU        Cuba
CV        Cape Verde
CX        Christmas Island
CY        Cyprus                    B *
DE        Germany                FI B *
DJ        Djibouti
DK        Denmark                FI B *
DM        Dominica                    
DO        Dominican Republic          P           
DZ        Algeria                   B * 
EC        Ecuador                FI B *
EE        Estonia                FI   *          Ex-USSR also via .su domain
EG        Egypt                     B *
EH        Western Sahara
ES        Spain                  FI B *
ET        Ethiopia
FI        Finland                FI B *
FJ        Fiji                        *
FK        Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM        Micronesia 
FO        Faroe Islands
FR        France                 FI B *
FX        France (European Ter.)                 ???
GA        Gabon
GB        Great Britain (UK)     FI   *          X.400 address gateway
GD        Grenada
GE        Georgia                                Ex-USSR
GH        Ghana
GI        Gibraltar
GL        Greenland
GP        Guadeloupe (Fr.)
GQ        Equatorial Guinea
GF        Guyana (Fr.)
GM        Gambia
GN        Guinea
GR        Greece                 FI B *
GT        Guatemala                   P
GU        Guam (US)
GW        Guinea Bissau
GY        Guyana
HK        Hong Kong              FI B *
HM        Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN        Honduras
HR        Croatia               PFI   *          Ex-Yugoslavia via .yu
HT        Haiti
HU        Hungary                FI B *
ID        Indonesia                   *
IE        Ireland                FI B *
IL        Israel                 FI B *
IN        India                  FI B *
IO        British Indian O. Terr.
IQ        Iraq
IR        Iran
IS        Iceland                FI   *
IT        Italy                  FI B *
JM        Jamaica
JO        Jordan
JP        Japan                  FI B *
KE        Kenya
KG        Kirgistan                              Ex-USSR
KH        Cambodia
KI        Kiribati
KM        Comoros
KN        St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla     P
KP        Korea (North)
KR        Korea (South)          FI B *
KW        Kuwait                PFI B *        No computers for Gulfnet(B)      
KY        Cayman Islands
KZ        Kazachstan                             Ex-USSR
LA        Laos
LB        Lebanon
LC        Saint Lucia                 P
LI        Liechtenstein
LK        Sri Lanka                   P
LR        Liberia
LS        Lesotho
LT        Lithuania                   *          Ex-USSR
LU        Luxembourg
LV        Latvia                      *          Ex-USSR
LY        Libya
MA        Morocco
MC        Monaco
MD        Moldavia                               Ex-USSR
MG        Madagascar
MH        Marshall Islands
ML        Mali
MM        Myanmar
MN        Mongolia
MO        Macau                       P
MP        Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ        Martinique (Fr.)
MR        Mauritania
MS        Montserrat
MT        Malta
MU        Mauritius
MV        Maldives
MW        Malawi
MX        Mexico                 FI B *
MY        Malaysia                    *
MZ        Mozambique                  P
NA        Namibia                     *
NC        New Caledonia (Fr.)
NE        Niger
NF        Norfolk Island
NG        Nigeria
NI        Nicaragua                   P
NL        Netherlands            FI B *
NO        Norway                 FI B *
NP        Nepal
NR        Nauru
NT        Neutral Zone
NU        Niue
NZ        New Zealand            FI   *
OM        Oman
PA        Panama
PE        Peru
PF        Polynesia (Fr.)
PG        Papua New Guinea            *
PH        Philippines
PK        Pakistan                    *
PL        Poland                 FI B *
PM        St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN        Pitcairn
PT        Portugal               FI B *  
PR        Puerto Rico (US)       FI B *
PW        Palau
PY        Paraguay                    *
QA        Qatar
RE        Reunion (Fr.)          FI   *          In .fr domain
RO        Romania                     P          Future BITNET connection
RU        Russian Federation                     Ex-USSR
RW        Rwanda
SA        Saudi Arabia              B *          GulfNet
SB        Solomon Islands
SC        Seychelles
SD        Sudan
SE        Sweden                 FI B *
SG        Singapore              FI B *
SH        St. Helena
SI        Slovenia              PFI   *          Ex-Yugoslavia also via .yu
SJ        Svalbard & Jan Mayen Is
SL        Sierra Leone
SM        San Marino
SN        Senegal
SO        Somalia
SR        Suriname
ST        St. Tome and Principe
SU        Soviet Union           FI B *          Still used.
SV        El Salvador
SY        Syria
SZ        Swaziland
TC        Turks & Caicos Islands
TD        Chad
TF        French Southern Terr.
TG        Togo
TH        Thailand               FI   *
TJ        Tadjikistan                            Ex-USSR
TK        Tokelau      
TM        Turkmenistan                           Ex-USSR 
TN        Tunisia                FI B *
TO        Tonga
TP        East Timor
TR        Turkey                    B *
TT        Trinidad & Tobago
TV        Tuvalu
TW        Taiwan                 FI B *
TZ        Tanzania
UA        Ukraine                     *          Ex-USSR via .su domain
UG        Uganda
UK        United Kingdom         FI B *          ISO 3166 code is GB
UM        US Minor outlying Isl.
US        United States          FI   *          .us sites NOT on BITNET (4)
UY        Uruguay                     *
UZ        Uzbekistan                             Ex-USSR
VA        Vatican City State
VC        St.Vincent & Grenadines     P
VE        Venezuela                   *
VG        Virgin Islands (British)
VI        Virgin Islands (US)
VN        Vietnam
VU        Vanuatu
WF        Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS        Samoa
YE        Yemen
YU        Yugoslavia             FI B *          Bitnet not at the moment
ZA        South Africa           FI   *
ZM        Zambia
ZR        Zaire
ZW        Zimbabwe                    *

See Note [5] for the next fields:

ARPA      Old style Arpanet           *          alias still works !!!
COM       Commercial             FI   *
EDU       Educational            FI B *
GOV       Government             FI   *
INT       International field    FI   *          used by Nato
MIL       US Military            FI   *
NATO      Nato field                  *          being replaced by .int
NET       Network                FI   *
ORG       Non-Profit OrganizationFI   *

DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release. 
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.
Affiliation to Imperial College is given for identification purposes only.

Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond, Digital Comms. Section, Elec. Eng. Department
 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BT, UK
       Internet/Bitnet: <foobar@ic.ac.uk> - Janet: <foobar@uk.ac.ic>