oclb Archive
Date: Mon Apr 19 13:28:29 1999
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FAQ: International E-mail accessibility (1999.02.19)

Archive-name: mail/country-codes
Last-modified: 1998/01/24

Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Codes
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
E-mail: <ocl@gih.com>
Release: 99.01.03

Release Notes:   a. More 'courtesy' domains:
                 b. Please note new Web reference:

This document is Copyright 1994-1999 by Olivier Crepin-Leblond. 
Parts of this document may be reproduced in a commercial publication
ONLY if prior permission has been granted by the copyright holder.

It may however be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that
this copyright notice, its headers "Archive-name", "Last-modified",
and "Release" are not removed. If unsure, please E-mail ocl@gih.com

This document answers the question:

"Has country X got E-mail or Internet access ?". 

The following table is a guide of country codes, showing the 
countries which have access to Internet or general E-mail services.  
The country codes have been derived from the International 
Organization for Standardization standard ISO 3166.
A country code is taken as a top level domain once it is registered 
at the InterNIC, rs.internic.net so *not* all country codes listed 
are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is also 
a section of general top level domains, based on the information
available at rs.internic.net.


I. Description of codes

FI  stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
    and internet E-mail.
B   stands for BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork) access although 
    the address may be in internet DNS (Domain Name System) format. 
*   (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is
    not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
    connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency.
C   stands for the "courtesy" top level domain. There is actually no
    physical access as such in the country referenced by this top level
    domain, but E-mail and/or Web addresses can be obtained under it;
    in some cases, this is for an official Web server for that country,
    which is facility-managed elsewhere. In other cases, it is a
    courtesy domain provided for commercial reasons which may, or may
    not be seen as a legitimate use of that top level domain.
PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+) 
P   stands for provisional connection. (+)
    (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
       - address not verified or lack of address
       - UUCP dialup not active
       - net connection possible but not officially announced
       - premature official announcement of connection
F   stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means
    of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this
    case is stable and reliable.

II. Networks which are not included

Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Military's unclassified portion of the
DDN - Data Defense Network) have computers all around the world. It is 
generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base, 
there will be a node reachable through gateways.

Worldwide Private company networks (banks, computer companies etc. that
have their own worldwide corporate intra-net).

Some networks based on X.400 E-mail, which offer high-cost networking
access. While those types of network are fading fast due to their 
high cost compared to the Internet, some regions of the world are
still reacheable only via such networks.  The service is VERY COSTLY, 
usually takes place via UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is 
usually charged to someone and if the telecommunication carrier 
cannot find someone to pay for the message transfer, it will reject 
it.  Although you may be able to RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those 
networks, you may not be able to reply to it.

III. Updates

    The situation changes from day to day. 

The growth in international networking is such that the information 
contained in this document may be out of date by the time it reaches 
Please send me ( ocl@gih.com ) any updates, including an example
address, for verification purposes.

Furthermore, if you are a connection provider or could provide a
low cost connection in a country, and are not listed as a provider in 
that country (see "FURTHER INFORMATION" section), please notify either
Randy Bush <randy@nsrc.org>, Steven Huter <sghuter@nsrc.org> or me (or
all three of us !).
NOTE: This doesn't include providers for North America.  If you are a 
North American provider, then please DON'T contact us - there are
already thousands of providers out there.

IV. .US sites

    While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.

V. .edu, .com, etc.

    The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet 
access are marked accordingly. 

VI. UK and GB domains

    UK stands for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. GB actually stands for Great Britain. GB is therefore a
subset of UK. In reality, the GB top level domain has been used mainly
for X.400 addressing of sites, while the UK top level domain is more
commonly used. While in the early nineties, there was an emphasis towards
X.400, and hence towards registration under the GB top level domain,
this policy does not stand anymore, and most sites in the UK are
now registered under the UK top level domain.

VII. Further information column

While there was a time when it was possible to display all
further information about a country's connectivity on this table,
it is now impossible to do so. 
We suggest downloading the Web-based version of this document from 
http://www.nsrc.org/codes/country-codes.html and selecting the
top level domain concerned - this will point to a wealth of
further information.

VIII. Where to find further information

  In addition to the Web form of this document, a number of sites 
run on-line information databases, mail-servers, and web information 
systems where further information can be found.

- rs.internic.net
    Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the
  Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages"
  has registration records for top level domains. "whois" can be
  accessed by connecting interactively (telnet rs.internic.net),
  or via the Web (http://www.internic.net) or using the "whois"
  command available on some computer systems (whois -h rs.internic.net).
  Registration records for a domain are sometimes useful since they
  provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this domain
  and those may hence be able to provide further information.
  Whois can also be accessible by E-mailing mailserv@internic.net<br>
  and subject: whois <name/domain>

- whois.ripe.net
    The Central European Registry run by RIPE, the co-ordinator for
  European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding
  European IP, etc. This is where the European Host Count is found
  at http://www.ripe.net/statistics/hostcount.html .

- whois.apnic.net
    The Asia Pacific Network Information Center, the co-ordinator
  for Internet sites in Asia and the Pacific area.

- GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal
    This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <lpress@isi.edu> and contains
  bookmarks for worldwide networking resources as well as papers
  and documents about connectivity. Access the archive as:

- BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
    Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around 
  the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order,
  send a message to LISTSERV@Bitnic.educom.edu (or LISTSERV@BITNIC for
  BITNET folks), no subject, and the command: 
  in the body of the message.
  A very long file of information on all international BITNET sites
  can be ftp'ed from Bitnic.educom.edu and is called BITEARN.NODES .
  It is more than 2Mb long.

- IANA, the Internet Assignment Authority Association
    This site keeps a list of country code registries at:
  It is very useful for getting in touch with registration
  services for each country.

- Network Wizards Internet Domain Survey
    Every 6 months, Mark Lottor carries out a complete Internet 
  Domain survey of the Internet, with host counts in all countries 
  reacheable by the Net. The current survey dates from late
  July 1998, and the next survey will take place in January 1999.
  For all information: http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW/top.html

- NAIC (NASA) Internet Survey of Providers
    This database contains contact details of providers throughout 
  the world. It also provides an insight into the NASA's global 
  satellite links. This is found at:

- www.nsrc.org
    This Web system, maintained by the Network Startup Resource
  Center contains perhaps the most comprehensive collection of 
  information about country connectivity. It is housed at the
  University of Oregon Computing Centre.
  The information is maintained in a distributed database (mySQL 
  and Java web server) that allows for friends and colleagues 
  around the world to help maintain the data about their 
  respective networks and countries.

  It's top level reference is: http://www.nsrc.org/ and the 
  coloured maps held in http://www.nsrc.org/codes/bymap/world.html
  point to further information on http://www.nsrc.org/db.
  Many thanks to Randy Bush <randy@nsrc.org>, John Klensin
  <klensin@nsrc.org> and Steven Huter <sghuter@nsrc.org> for 
  setting-up this site and this collaborative effort.

IX. Archiving

    At each release, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:


(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access
    in some cases. 

The document is also retrievable by E-mail from rtfm.mit.edu by
sending an E-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu , blank subject line
and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes

The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using a
simple mail-server robot:
Send E-mail to: <robot@gih.com> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get mail/country-codes  in the body of your message.

The document is also distributed automatically once a month on a 
mailing list. To subscribe to that mailing list, send a message to:
country-codes-request@nsrc.org   with the command in the body of the 
message: subscribe 

The whole collection of documents (monthly releases since 1992 !) 
is available on:    http://www.nsrc.org/oclb

X. World-Wide-Web (WWW) documents

A sister document is available on the World Wide Web. It is based
on this FAQ, and has links to further information for each domain:


A set of clickable international colour-coded maps is available at:


The pages are kindly hosted by the Network Startup Resource Center
computer at the University of Oregon.

Web references for Top-Level information servers for a particular country
should be sent to <ocl@gih.com>. Thanks to all who have helped !

XI. Internetology

The Internet has exploded in size in the last few years. 
The present document has been edited monthly since 1993, and some Web 
pages have been put together to reflect on the continuing spread of 
Internet/E-mail in the world since that time.

This section is called "Internetology".

It provides a graphical history of the spread of the Net in developing 
countries, by taking snapshots of Internet connectivity every six
months since November 1993. All of the maps tie-up with the 
information that is included with the FAQ on International E-mail 

The reference for the Internetology pages is:


ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains.


The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via
UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people
in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to
them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a
remote computer in such a country asking about the local weather report.

Please think twice before sending such E-mail.

Code    Country              Conn     Notes         Further information 
AC   Ascension Island      PFI   P C  confirmation requested
AD   Andorra                FI   *                            
AE   United Arab Emirates   FI   *                    
AF   Afghanistan(Islamic St.)      C
AG   Antigua and Barbuda    FI   *                     
AI   Anguilla               FI   *
AL   Albania                FI   *                    
AM   Armenia                FI   *    Ex-USSR
AN   Netherland Antilles    FI   *
AO   Angola (Republic of)   FI   *                    
AQ   Antarctica             FI   *    intermittent  
AR   Argentina              FI   *                    
AS   American Samoa         FI   *
AT   Austria                FI   *                    
AU   Australia              FI   *                     
AW   Aruba                  FI   *                    
AZ   Azerbaijan             FI B *    Ex-USSR         
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina     FI   *     
BB   Barbados               FI   *                    
BD   Bangladesh             FI   *
BE   Belgium                FI   *                    
BF   Burkina Faso           FI   *                    
BG   Bulgaria               FI B *                    
BH   Bahrain                FI   *                    
BI   Burundi                FI   *
BJ   Benin                  FI   *
BM   Bermuda                FI   *   
BN   Brunei Darussalam      FI   *
BO   Bolivia                FI   *                    
BR   Brazil                 FI   *                    
BS   Bahamas                FI   *                    
BT   Bhutan                        C
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana               FI   *                    
BY   Belarus                FI B *    Ex-USSR         
BZ   Belize                 FI   *                    
CA   Canada                 FI B *                   
CC   Cocos (Keeling) Isl.          C
CD   Dem. Repub. of Congo  PFI   *
CF   Central African Rep.   FI   *
CG   Congo                       * C
CH   Switzerland            FI B *                    
CI   Ivory Coast            FI   *                    
CK   Cook Islands           FI   *
CL   Chile                  FI B *                    
CM   Cameroon               FI   *
CN   China                  FI   *                   
CO   Colombia               FI   *                     
CR   Costa Rica             FI   *                     
CU   Cuba                   FI   *                    
CV   Cape Verde             FI   *
CX   Christmas Island              C
CY   Cyprus                 FI   *                    
CZ   Czech Republic         FI B *                   
DE   Germany                FI B *              
DJ   Djibouti               FI   *
DK   Denmark                FI   *                 
DM   Dominica               FI   *                    
DO   Dominican Republic     FI   *                    
DZ   Algeria                FI   *                    
EC   Ecuador                FI B *                    
EE   Estonia                FI   *                    
EG   Egypt                  FI B *                    
EH   Western Sahara
ER   Eritrea                     *                    
ES   Spain                  FI B *                
ET   Ethiopia               FI   *                    
FI   Finland                FI B *               
FJ   Fiji                   FI   *                     
FK   Falkland (Malvinas)   PFI   * C
FM   Micronesia             FI   *
FO   Faroe Islands          FI   *                    
FR   France                 FI B *                   
FX   France (European Ter.)           France Metropolitaine
GA   Gabon                  FI   *
GB   Great Britain (UK)     FI B *    X.400 & IP both use this TLD
GD   Grenada                FI   *
GE   Georgia                FI   *    Ex-USSR         
GF   Guiana (Fr.)           FI   *                    
GG   Guernsey (Ch. Isl)     FI   *
GH   Ghana                  FI   *                    
GI   Gibraltar              FI   *
GL   Greenland              FI   *                    
GM   Gambia                 FI   *                    
GN   Guinea                 FI   *
GP   Guadeloupe (Fr.)       FI   *                    
GQ   Equatorial Guinea      FI   *
GR   Greece                 FI   *                   
GS   South Georgia  and
     South Sandwich Islands        C
GT   Guatemala              FI   *              
GU   Guam (US)              FI   *  in US domains     
GW   Guinea Bissau          FI   *
GY   Guyana                 FI   *
HK   Hong Kong              FI   *             
HM   Heard & McDonald Isl.         C
HN   Honduras               FI   *
HR   Croatia                FI B *                   
HT   Haiti                  FI   *                   
HU   Hungary                FI B *                 
ID   Indonesia              FI   *                    
IE   Ireland                FI   *               
IL   Israel                 FI B *             
IN   India                  FI B *                    
IM   Isle of Man            FI   *
IO   British Indian O. Ter. FI   * 
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran                   FI   *                     
IS   Iceland                FI B *             
IT   Italy                  FI B *           
JE   Jersey (Ch. Isl.)      FI   *
JM   Jamaica                FI   *                    
JO   Jordan                 FI   *                    
JP   Japan                  FI B *                    
KE   Kenya                  FI   *                    
KG   Kyrgyz Republic        FI   *    Ex-USSR (in .su domain)
KH   Cambodia               FI   *
KI   Kiribati               FI   *
KM   Comoros                FI   *
KN   St.Kitts Nevis Ang.   PFI   P C
KP   Korea (North)               P                    
KR   Korea (South)          FI   *                   
KW   Kuwait                 FI   *
KY   Cayman Islands         FI   *                    
KZ   Kazakstan              FI   *    Ex-USSR
LA   Laos                        *
LB   Lebanon                FI   *                    
LC   Saint Lucia            FI   *               
LI   Liechtenstein          FI   *              
LK   Sri Lanka              FI   *                    
LR   Liberia                FI   *
LS   Lesotho                FI   *                    
LT   Lithuania              FI   *    Ex-USSR        
LU   Luxembourg             FI   *                 
LV   Latvia                 FI   *    Ex-USSR     
LY   Libya                         C
MA   Morocco                FI   *                    
MC   Monaco                 FI   *
MD   Moldova                FI   * C  Ex-USSR
MG   Madagascar             FI   *                    
MH   Marshall Islands              C
MK   Macedonia (former Yug.)FI   *                    
ML   Mali                   FI   *                    
MM   Myanmar                     *
MN   Mongolia               FI   *                    
MO   Macau                  FI   *           
MP   Northern Mariana Isl.  FI   *
MQ   Martinique (Fr.)       FI   *
MR   Mauritania             FI   *
MS   Montserrat                    C
MT   Malta                  FI   * 
MU   Mauritius              FI   *                    
MV   Maldives               FI   *
MW   Malawi                 FI   *
MX   Mexico                 FI   *                    
MY   Malaysia               FI   *       
MZ   Mozambique             FI   *                    
NA   Namibia                FI   *                    
NC   New Caledonia (Fr.)    FI   *                    
NE   Niger                  FI   *
NF   Norfolk Island                C
NG   Nigeria                FI   F                    
NI   Nicaragua              FI   *                    
NL   Netherlands            FI B *                 
NO   Norway                 FI B *                 
NP   Nepal                  FI   *                    
NR   Nauru
NU   Niue                        * C
NZ   New Zealand            FI   *                
OM   Oman                   FI   *
PA   Panama                 FI   *                     
PE   Peru                   FI   *                    
PF   Polynesia (Fr.)        FI   *                    
PG   Papua New Guinea       FI   *             
PH   Philippines            FI   *                
PK   Pakistan               FI   *                    
PL   Poland                 FI B *             
PM   St. Pierre & Miquelon         C
PN   Pitcairn
PR   Puerto Rico (US)       FI B *                
PT   Portugal               FI   *                   
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay               FI   *
QA   Qatar                  FI   *
RE   Reunion (Fr.)          FI   *    In .fr domain  
RO   Romania                FI B *                 
RU   Russian Federation     FI B *    Ex-USSR         
RW   Rwanda                 FI   *   
SA   Saudi Arabia           FI   *    dial-ip         
SB   Solomon Islands        FI   *
SC   Seychelles             FI   *                    
SD   Sudan                  FI   *                   
SE   Sweden                 FI B *               
SG   Singapore              FI   *            
SH   St. Helena                    C
SI   Slovenia               FI   *                 
SJ   Svalbard & Jan Mayen IsFI   *     in .no domain
SK   Slovakia (Slovak Rep)  FI   *                 
SL   Sierra Leone           FI   *                    
SM   San Marino             FI   *
SN   Senegal                FI   *                    
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname               FI   *                    
ST   St. Tome and Principe         C
SU   Soviet Union           FI B *    Still used.     
SV   El Salvador            FI   *                          
SY   Syria                  FI   *
SZ   Swaziland              FI   *                    
TC   Turks & Caicos Islands FI   *
TD   Chad                   FI   *
TF   French Southern Terr.         C
TG   Togo                   FI   *                    
TH   Thailand               FI   *                    
TJ   Tadjikistan                 * C  Ex-USSR 
TK   Tokelau      
TM   Turkmenistan           FI   *    Ex-USSR 
TN   Tunisia                FI   *                    
TO   Tonga                  FI   *
TP   East Timor                    C
TR   Turkey                 FI B *                    
TT   Trinidad & Tobago      FI   *                    
TV   Tuvalu                        C
TW   Taiwan                 FI   *                     
TZ   Tanzania               FI   *                    
UA   Ukraine                FI   *                    
UG   Uganda                 FI   *                    
UK   United Kingdom         FI B *    ISO 3166 is GB  
UM   US Minor outlying Isl.
US   United States          FI   *    see note (4)   
UY   Uruguay                FI   *                    
UZ   Uzbekistan             FI   *    Ex-USSR
VA   Vatican City State     FI   *                    
VC   St.Vincent & Grenadines     P                 
VE   Venezuela              FI   *              
VG   Virgin Islands (Brit)  FI   *    Via Barbados (BB)
VI   Virgin Islands (US)    FI   *                    
VN   Vietnam                FI   *                    
VU   Vanuatu                FI   *                    
WF   Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS   Western Samoa          FI   *
YE   Yemen                  FI   *
YT   Mayotte
YU   Yugoslavia             FI   *     
ZA   South Africa           FI   *                    
ZM   Zambia                 FI   *    intermittent    
ZR   Dem. Rep. of Congo               deleted and replaced by CD
ZW   Zimbabwe               FI   *                    

See Note [5] for the next top level domains (rs.internic.net):

ARPA Old style Arpanet           *    alias still works
COM  Commercial             FI   *    connect to    whois.internic.net
EDU  Educational            FI B *    connect to    whois.internic.net
GOV  Government             FI   *    connect to    whois.internic.net
INT  International field    FI   *             
MIL  US Military            FI   *    connect to    nic.ddn.mil
NET  Network                FI   *    connect to    whois.internic.net
ORG  Non-Profit OrganizationFI   *    connect to    whois.internic.net

DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release. 
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.

Olivier MJ Crepin-Leblond, Ph.D. |--> Global Information Highway Limited
Phone: +44 (0)956 84 1113  | http://www.gih.com/ | E-mail: <ocl@gih.com>
Fax  : +44 (0)171 937 7666 | MobEmporium: http://www.mobile-emporium.com