Routing Infrastructure and Security Operations (RISO)
This workshop teaches the skills required for the configuration of scalable and secure routing, as well as best practice operation of the networks making up today's Internet.
It runs with up to 8 groups. Each block of four groups shares a transit router (TRx), and connects to an exchange point with a switch (IXPx), a services router (SRx), and an Ubuntu BIRD route server (RSx).
Each group contains:
- A border router (BX)
- A peering router (PX)
- A core router (CX)
- An access router (AX)
- A trigger router (TX)
- A customer router (CustX)
- An Ubuntu server (srvX)
Each srvX server has a backdoor connection onto the class 100.64.0.x network to allow fast downloads, since the CSR1000v virtual router applies a 1Mbps throughput limit. This is shown as a "NAT" connector in the topology.
The lab is built to run on two servers, each with 64GB of RAM. The first server runs topology "riso1" for groups 1-4, and the second server runs topology "riso2" for groups 5-8. It's fine to run only riso1 by itself if you wish.
The high RAM requirements are due to the AX, BX, CX and PX routers being CSR1000v to get the RPKI feature set, and these routers require 3GB of RAM each.
The second server should be built identically to the first, except:
- Change the classroom IPv4 address from 100.64.0.1 to 100.64.0.8
- Change the classroom IPv6 address from fe80::1 to fe80::8
- Disable DHCP on the classroom network
These can all be changed using
virsh net-edit default followed
by a reboot:
<!-- before --> <ip address='100.64.0.1' netmask='255.255.252.0'> <dhcp> <range start='100.64.1.0' end='100.64.3.254'/> </dhcp> </ip> <ip family='ipv6' address='fe80::1' prefix='64'> </ip> <!-- after --> <ip address='100.64.0.8' netmask='255.255.252.0'> </ip> <ip family='ipv6' address='fe80::8' prefix='64'> </ip>
The classroom LAN ports for the two servers should connect into the same switch, into which the classroom wifi access point(s) also connect.
The second server does not need a WAN connection, except for initial setup, or if you require remote management access.
The easiest way to manage two GNS3 topologies at the same time is to use the web interfaces:
You can add multiple servers to the standalone GNS3 GUI, but you may need to keep switching between topologies - in which case, you should be very careful to ensure that the option "Leave this project running in the background when closing GNS3" is enabled on both projects.
You will need the following files:
||student navigation page to go in e.g.
||GNS3 project for groups 1-4|
||GNS3 project for groups 5-8|
||cloud-init configs for Route Servers (RS)|
||cloud-init configs for SRV in each group|
||VM image with bird preinstalled, for RS and SRV instances|
||Initial configuration for CSR1000v|
The total memory allocation of all the devices is 58GB. There should still be enough RAM to run the NOC.
All of the CSRv routers are uncompressing identical images, and eventually ksm will kick in, sharing pages and freeing RAM. With default ksm settings this takes several hours.
Backbone addressing plan
|IP Address||DNS Name|
|100.64.0.1||vtp.ws.nsrc.org (server for groups 1-4)|
|100.64.0.8||vtp2.ws.nsrc.org (server for groups 5-8)|
See the training materials for the addressing plan used inside the network.
These passwords are shared with the students:
(In the initial state "00-blank", the student routers are unconfigured)
The instructor logins are not shared with the students:
|TRx, SRx, IXPx||
lab-PW login also works on these devices, so that students
can inspect the state of the infrastructure, e.g. show BGP status, although
they will not know the enable password.
On the route servers, the
isplab account is not able to
sudo - but it is
bird so they can read
bird.conf and interact using
There are pre-generated snapshots for many different stages of the lab.
Normally this class starts with the routers and switches completely unconfigured. You can reset to this state using the "00-base" snapshot (note that the transit and IXP routers are configured in this snapshot). The uplinks from the IXP services router (SR) are shut down, so that the IXP services subnets do not appear in the initial BGP routing table.
You can restore to any given snapshot using
Edit > Manage Snapshots in the
GNS3 client. Beware that when you restore from a snapshot it will reset
all of the devices - including the Linux servers - and you will also lose
any changes you've made to the network topology itself.
gns3man tool if you want to restore the configuration of an
Problem with CSR1000v snapshot restore
There is an intermittent problem with CSR1000v snapshot restore - you may find some devices ignore the prepared configuration and instead go into the "initial configuration" dialog. Any affected routers can be fixed simply by right-clicking in the GNS3 GUI and reloading them:
Alternatively, a faster way is to say "no" to the configuration dialog, get
to the router prompt and do
copy flash:config running, as follows:
--- System Configuration Dialog --- Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]: <lots of stuff> Router>en Router#copy flash:config.txt running-config Destination filename [running-config]? % Warning: use /31 mask on non point-to-point interface cautiously ... etc
If you are restoring the entire class to a later stage, a quick way to check them is to login just to the core routers (CX). If any shows the initial configuration dialog, then fix it. Once you are able to login, check all the expected IS-IS neighbors are present:
Routing Infrastructure and Security Operations Workshop Network Startup Resource Center User Access Verification Username: isplab Password: C2>sh isis neighbors Tag as20: System Id Type Interface IP Address State Holdtime Circuit Id P2 L2 Gi2 100.68.2.19 UP 21 01 A2 L2 Gi3 100.68.2.21 UP 23 01 T2 L2 Gi5 100.68.2.23 UP 29 00 C2>
In the above example, B2 is missing, so it would also be necessary to fix B2.