Agenda: ex-ganeti-install.htm

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1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
2<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
3<head>
4  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
5  <meta http-equiv="Content-Style-Type" content="text/css" />
6  <meta name="generator" content="pandoc" />
7  <title>Ganeti basic installation</title>
8  <style type="text/css">code{white-space: pre;}</style>
9  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10</head>
11<body>
12<div id="header">
13<h1 class="title">Ganeti basic installation</h1>
14</div>
15<div id="TOC">
16<ul>
17<li><a href="#objectives"><span class="toc-section-number">1</span> Objectives</a></li>
18<li><a href="#become-root"><span class="toc-section-number">2</span> Become root</a></li>
19<li><a href="#configure-the-hostname"><span class="toc-section-number">3</span> Configure the Hostname</a></li>
20<li><a href="#logical-volume-manager"><span class="toc-section-number">4</span> Logical Volume Manager</a></li>
21<li><a href="#configure-the-network"><span class="toc-section-number">5</span> Configure the Network</a><ul>
22<li><a href="#synchronize-the-clock"><span class="toc-section-number">5.1</span> Synchronize the clock</a></li>
23</ul></li>
24<li><a href="#install-the-ganeti-software"><span class="toc-section-number">6</span> Install the Ganeti software</a><ul>
25<li><a href="#debian"><span class="toc-section-number">6.1</span> Debian</a></li>
26<li><a href="#ubuntu"><span class="toc-section-number">6.2</span> Ubuntu</a></li>
27</ul></li>
28<li><a href="#setup-drbd"><span class="toc-section-number">7</span> Setup DRBD</a></li>
29<li><a href="#create-a-root-password-ubuntu-servers-only"><span class="toc-section-number">8</span> Create a root password [Ubuntu servers only]</a></li>
30<li><a href="#create-script-to-create-vm-users"><span class="toc-section-number">9</span> Create script to create VM users</a></li>
31<li><a href="#write-script-to-create-vm-users"><span class="toc-section-number">10</span> Write script to create VM users</a></li>
32<li><a href="#execute-user-creation-script-on-local-node"><span class="toc-section-number">11</span> Execute user creation script on local node</a></li>
33<li><a href="#execute-user-creation-script-on-remote-nodes-optional"><span class="toc-section-number">12</span> Execute user creation script on remote nodes (optional)</a></li>
34<li><a href="#initialize-the-cluster---master-node-only"><span class="toc-section-number">13</span> Initialize the cluster - MASTER NODE ONLY</a><ul>
35<li><a href="#adding-nodes-to-the-cluster---master-node-only"><span class="toc-section-number">13.1</span> Adding nodes to the cluster - MASTER NODE ONLY</a></li>
36<li><a href="#verify-the-configuration-of-your-cluster"><span class="toc-section-number">13.2</span> Verify the configuration of your cluster</a></li>
37</ul></li>
38<li><a href="#securing-the-vnc-consoles"><span class="toc-section-number">14</span> Securing the VNC consoles</a></li>
39<li><a href="#optional-burn-in"><span class="toc-section-number">15</span> Optional: Burn-in</a></li>
40</ul>
41</div>
42<h1 id="objectives"><a href="#objectives"><span class="header-section-number">1</span> Objectives</a></h1>
43<p>You will each of you install the Ganeti virtualization cluster management software on your Linux server.</p>
44<ul>
45<li>Configure the network</li>
46<li>Install the Ganeti software</li>
47<li>Use the Ganeti command line tools to initialize the cluster, with groups of machines working in a cluster configuration</li>
48</ul>
49<p>You will build clusters of three of four hosts, depending on how the instructor wishes to organise the classroom. For example, a lab with 15 hosts might be organised like this:</p>
50<table>
51<thead>
52<tr class="header">
53<th align="left">cluster IP</th>
54<th align="left">master node</th>
55<th align="left">additional nodes</th>
56</tr>
57</thead>
58<tbody>
59<tr class="odd">
60<td align="left">gnt1.ws.nsrc.org</td>
61<td align="left">host1.ws.nsrc.org</td>
62<td align="left">host2.ws.nsrc.org, host3.ws.nsrc.org</td>
63</tr>
64<tr class="even">
65<td align="left">gnt2.ws.nsrc.org</td>
66<td align="left">host4.ws.nsrc.org</td>
67<td align="left">host5.ws.nsrc.org, host6.ws.nsrc.org</td>
68</tr>
69<tr class="odd">
70<td align="left">gnt3.ws.nsrc.org</td>
71<td align="left">host7.ws.nsrc.org</td>
72<td align="left">host8.ws.nsrc.org, host9.ws.nsrc.org</td>
73</tr>
74<tr class="even">
75<td align="left">gnt4.ws.nsrc.org</td>
76<td align="left">host10.ws.nsrc.org</td>
77<td align="left">host11.ws.nsrc.org, host12.ws.nsrc.org</td>
78</tr>
79<tr class="odd">
80<td align="left">gnt5.ws.nsrc.org</td>
81<td align="left">host13.ws.nsrc.org</td>
82<td align="left">host14.ws.nsrc.org, host15.ws.nsrc.org</td>
83</tr>
84</tbody>
85</table>
86<p>Note that ganeti requires you to use fully-qualified domain names, and these must resolve to the correct IP addresses (either in the DNS or in the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on every node)</p>
87<p>Your host's static IP address is 10.10.0.X, where X is your host number (e.g. host 4 is 10.10.0.4)</p>
88<h1 id="become-root"><a href="#become-root"><span class="header-section-number">2</span> Become root</a></h1>
89<p>All of the actions in this exercise are done as &quot;root&quot;, so if you are not root already type:</p>
90<pre><code>$ sudo -s
91#</code></pre>
92<h1 id="configure-the-hostname"><a href="#configure-the-hostname"><span class="header-section-number">3</span> Configure the Hostname</a></h1>
93<p>Look at the contents of the file <code>/etc/hostname</code> and check it contains the fully-qualified domain name, i.e.</p>
94<pre><code>hostX.ws.nsrc.org</code></pre>
95<p>(where X is your machine number). If not, then edit it so that it looks like that, then get the system to re-read this file:</p>
96<pre><code># hostname -F /etc/hostname</code></pre>
97<p>Also check <code>/etc/hosts</code> to ensure that you have the both the fully-qualified name and the short name there, pointing to your static IP address:</p>
98<pre><code>127.0.0.1   localhost
9910.10.0.X   hostX.ws.nsrc.org hostX</code></pre>
100<h1 id="logical-volume-manager"><a href="#logical-volume-manager"><span class="header-section-number">4</span> Logical Volume Manager</a></h1>
101<!-- ONLY FOR NESTED-VIRT SETUPS WHERE THE BOOT DISK IS NON-LVM
102Type the following command:
103
104~~~
105# vgs
106~~~
107
108If it shows you have a volume group called 'ganeti' then skip to the next
109section, "Configure the Network"
110
111If the command is not found, then install the lvm2 package:
112
113~~~
114# apt-get install lvm2
115~~~
116
117Now, your host machine should have either a spare partition or a spare
118hard drive which you will use for LVM.  If it's a second hard drive it will
119be `/dev/vdb` or `/dev/sdb`.
120Check which you have:
121
122~~~
123# ls /dev/vd*
124# ls /dev/sd*
125~~~
126
127The following instructions assume the spare drive is `/dev/vdb` but please
128adjust them as necessary.
129
130Turning this drive into a physical volume for LVM will destroy any data which
131is on it, so double-check that the drive is not in use, by looking at what
132filesystems are currently mounted:
133
134~~~
135# mount
136~~~
137
138For example, you may see `/dev/vda1` mounted (which means the first partition on
139device `/dev/vda` is in use)
140
141Assuming `/dev/vdb` is spare, let's mark it as a physical volume for LVM:
142
143~~~
144# pvcreate /dev/vdb
145# pvs   # should show the physical volume
146~~~
147
148Now we need to create a volume group called `ganeti` containing just this
149one physical volume.  (Volume groups can be extended later by adding more
150physical volumes)
151
152~~~
153# vgcreate ganeti /dev/vdb
154# vgs
155  VG     #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize  VFree
156  ganeti   1   0   0 wz--n- 24.00g 24.00g
157~~~
158
159You should see that the volume group has been created, it consists of
160one Physical Volume (PV), and no Logical Volumes (LV) have been created
161within it, so all the space is free.
162
163More detailed information can be seen by typing `vgdisplay`
164
165If you want to create, extend and delete a logical volume called "foo",
166these are the commands you would use.  If you have not used them before,
167this is a good time to try them out.
168
169~~~
170# lvcreate --size 1G --name foo ganeti      # create volume called "foo" of 1GB
171# lvs
172# ls -l /dev/ganeti
173# blockdev --getsize64 /dev/ganeti/foo      # shows device size in bytes
174# lvextend --size +1G /dev/ganeti/foo       # grow by 1GB
175# blockdev --getsize64 /dev/ganeti/foo      # shows device size in bytes
176# vgs                                       # check free space in VG
177# lvremove /dev/ganeti/foo
178# vgs
179~~~
180-->
181
182<p>You don't need to do this for the lab, but on a production Ganeti server it is recommended to configure LVM not to scan DRBD devices for physical volumes. The documentation suggests editing <code>/etc/lvm/lvm.conf</code> and adding a reject expression to the filter variable, like this:</p>
183<pre><code>filter = [ &quot;r|/dev/cdrom|&quot;, &quot;r|/dev/drbd[0-9]+|&quot; ]</code></pre>
184<p>You can tighten this further by allowing only devices which match the expected pattern. If you know that all your attached physical disks start with <code>/dev/sd</code> then you can accept only those and reject everything else:</p>
185<pre><code>filter = [ &quot;a|^/dev/sd|&quot;, &quot;r|.*|&quot; ]</code></pre>
186<h1 id="configure-the-network"><a href="#configure-the-network"><span class="header-section-number">5</span> Configure the Network</a></h1>
187<p>We need a software bridge on our machine, so that VMs can connect to it and have shared access to the physical ethernet port on the host.</p>
188<p>You may already have built your machine with a bridge interface and static IP address - if so you can skip this section.</p>
189<p>If not, then check that the bridge management utilities are installed:</p>
190<pre><code># apt-get install bridge-utils</code></pre>
191<p>Then edit the file <code>/etc/network/interfaces</code> so that it looks like this:</p>
192<pre><code># The loopback network interface
193auto lo
194iface lo inet loopback
195
196# Management interface
197auto eth0
198iface eth0 inet manual
199
200auto br-lan
201iface br-lan inet static
202        address         10.10.0.X
203        netmask         255.255.255.0
204        gateway         10.10.0.254
205        dns-nameservers 10.10.0.241
206        bridge_ports    eth0
207        bridge_stp      off
208        bridge_fd       0
209        bridge_maxwait  0</code></pre>
210<p>If you changed this file, the safest thing to do now is to reboot so that the network interfaces are brought up according to these settings.</p>
211<p>Then check that the bridge interface has been created:</p>
212<pre><code># brctl show
213# ifconfig br-lan</code></pre>
214<p>Verify that your colleagues have finished their configuration, and test that you can ping their 10.10.0.X addresses.</p>
215<p>If you have problems:</p>
216<ul>
217<li>verify <code>/etc/network/interfaces</code></li>
218<li>run <code>brctl show</code> and <code>ifconfig</code></li>
219<li>ask a neighbor, or your instructors, for assistance.</li>
220</ul>
221<p>As a final check of networking and DNS, test that you can resolve the following hostnames using the <code>dig</code> command:</p>
222<pre><code>dig +short host1.ws.nsrc.org
223dig +short host2.ws.nsrc.org
224..
225dig +short gnt1.ws.nsrc.org
226dig +short gnt2.ws.nsrc.org
227..</code></pre>
228<h2 id="synchronize-the-clock"><a href="#synchronize-the-clock"><span class="header-section-number">5.1</span> Synchronize the clock</a></h2>
229<p>It's important that the nodes have synchronized time, so install the NTP daemon on every node:</p>
230<pre><code># apt-get install ntp ntpdate</code></pre>
231<h1 id="install-the-ganeti-software"><a href="#install-the-ganeti-software"><span class="header-section-number">6</span> Install the Ganeti software</a></h1>
232<p>Now install the software from the right package repository. How to do this depends on whether your machine is running Debian or Ubuntu.</p>
233<h2 id="debian"><a href="#debian"><span class="header-section-number">6.1</span> Debian</a></h2>
234<p>On Debian, the available version of ganeti is too old, but fortunately the current version is available in a <code>backports</code> repository <sup><a href="#fn1" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref1">1</a></sup>.</p>
235<p>As root, create a file <code>/etc/apt/sources.list.d/wheezy-backports.list</code> containing this one line:</p>
236<pre><code>deb http://cdn.debian.net/debian/ wheezy-backports main</code></pre>
237<p>Then refresh the index of available packages:</p>
238<pre><code># apt-get update</code></pre>
239<p>Now, install the <code>Ganeti</code> software package. Note that the backports packages are not used unless you ask for them explicitly.</p>
240<pre><code># apt-get install ganeti/wheezy-backports</code></pre>
241<p>This will install the current released version of Ganeti on your system; but any dependencies it pulls in will be the stable versions.</p>
242<p>The ganeti-htools package is installed as a dependency. This provides the instance allocator (&quot;hail&quot;) which can automatically place VMs for you.</p>
243<h2 id="ubuntu"><a href="#ubuntu"><span class="header-section-number">6.2</span> Ubuntu</a></h2>
244<p>For server applications you are recommended to use a Long Term Support (LTS) version of Ubuntu. The current LTS versions are 12.04 and 14.04.</p>
245<p>The version of Ganeti provided in Ubuntu 12.04 is very old; the version in Ubuntu 14.04 is newer (Ganeti 2.9.x), but it's still better to work with up-to-date code. Also, Ganeti 2.10 introduced a <a href="http://docs.ganeti.org/ganeti/master/html/design-upgrade.html">mechanism to make upgrades to later versions much easier</a>.</p>
246<p>Luckily, a newer version of Ganeti is available for Ubuntu 12.04 and 14.04, via a &quot;Private Package Archive&quot; (PPA).</p>
247<p><a href="https://launchpad.net/~pkg-ganeti-devel/+archive/lts">https://launchpad.net/~pkg-ganeti-devel/+archive/lts</a></p>
248<p>To add the necessary information to the our list of packages sources (<code>/etc/apt/sources.list</code>), run the following commands:</p>
249<pre><code># apt-get install python-software-properties
250# add-apt-repository ppa:pkg-ganeti-devel/lts</code></pre>
251<p>The second command will prompt you:</p>
252<pre><code>You are about to add the following PPA to your system:
253 This PPA contains stable versions of Ganeti backported to Ubuntu LTS. Currently
254 it covers 12.04 LTS (Precise) and 14.04 LTS (Trusty).
255 More info: https://launchpad.net/~pkg-ganeti-devel/+archive/lts
256Press [ENTER] to continue or ctrl-c to cancel adding it</code></pre>
257<p>Just press <code>[ENTER]</code></p>
258<p>The package archive will now be available. We still need to update the list of available packages:</p>
259<pre><code># apt-get update</code></pre>
260<p>Now, install the <code>Ganeti</code> software package:</p>
261<pre><code># apt-get install ganeti</code></pre>
262<p>This will install the current released version of Ganeti on your system.</p>
263<h1 id="setup-drbd"><a href="#setup-drbd"><span class="header-section-number">7</span> Setup DRBD</a></h1>
264<p>We'll now set up DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device), which will make it possible for VMs to have redundant storage across two physical machines.</p>
265<p>DRBD was already installed when we installed Ganeti, but we still need to change the configuration:</p>
266<pre><code># echo &quot;options drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true&quot; &gt;/etc/modprobe.d/drbd.conf
267# echo &quot;drbd&quot; &gt;&gt;/etc/modules
268# rmmod drbd      # ignore error if the module isn't already loaded
269# modprobe drbd</code></pre>
270<p>The entry in <code>/etc/modules</code> ensures that drbd is loaded at boot time.</p>
271<h1 id="create-a-root-password-ubuntu-servers-only"><a href="#create-a-root-password-ubuntu-servers-only"><span class="header-section-number">8</span> Create a root password [Ubuntu servers only]</a></h1>
272<p>Ganeti will need to log in as <code>root</code> to the other nodes in the cluster so it can set up the configuration files there. After the first login, SSH keys are used (and therefore no password is used), but for the first connection, we need to set a root password.</p>
273<p>For Ubuntu servers only: you need to set a root password on each node. (For Debian servers, this will have already been done at installation time)</p>
274<p>Note: You only need to do this on the <code>slave</code> nodes in each cluster of servers.</p>
275<pre><code># passwd root
276Enter new UNIX password:
277Retype new UNIX password:
278passwd: password updated successfully</code></pre>
279<p>Use the in-class password!</p>
280<p>Finally, create a directory for SSH keys to be stored for the <code>root</code> user:</p>
281<pre><code># mkdir /root/.ssh
282# chmod 700 /root/.ssh</code></pre>
283<h1 id="create-script-to-create-vm-users"><a href="#create-script-to-create-vm-users"><span class="header-section-number">9</span> Create script to create VM users</a></h1>
284<pre><code># vi ~/create_users.sh</code></pre>
285<h1 id="write-script-to-create-vm-users"><a href="#write-script-to-create-vm-users"><span class="header-section-number">10</span> Write script to create VM users</a></h1>
286<pre><code>#!/bin/bash
287
288for i in `seq 120 130`;
289do
290    useradd -u $i -s /bin/false -M kvm-$i
291
292done</code></pre>
293<h1 id="execute-user-creation-script-on-local-node"><a href="#execute-user-creation-script-on-local-node"><span class="header-section-number">11</span> Execute user creation script on local node</a></h1>
294<pre><code>chmod 700 create_users.sh &amp;&amp; ./create_users.sh</code></pre>
295<h1 id="execute-user-creation-script-on-remote-nodes-optional"><a href="#execute-user-creation-script-on-remote-nodes-optional"><span class="header-section-number">12</span> Execute user creation script on remote nodes (optional)</a></h1>
296<pre><code>ssh host1 &quot;bash -s&quot; &lt; ./create_users.sh</code></pre>
297<h1 id="initialize-the-cluster---master-node-only"><a href="#initialize-the-cluster---master-node-only"><span class="header-section-number">13</span> Initialize the cluster - MASTER NODE ONLY</a></h1>
298<p>We are now ready to run the commands that will create the Ganeti cluster. Do this only on the MASTER node of the cluster.</p>
299<pre><code># gnt-cluster init --master-netdev=br-lan --enabled-hypervisors=kvm \
300  --uid-pool=120-130 --prealloc-wipe-disks=yes -H kvm:security_model=pool,use_chroot=true \
301  -N link=br-lan --vg-name ganeti gnt1.ws.nsrc.org
302
303# gnt-cluster modify -H kvm:kernel_path=,initrd_path=,vnc_bind_address=0.0.0.0</code></pre>
304<p>where X is the number of your <em>host</em> (like host1, host2 etc), and Z is the number of your <em>cluster</em> (gnt1, gnt2 etc)</p>
305<p>Explanation of the above parameters:</p>
306<ul>
307<li><p><code>--master-netdev</code> =&gt; a Ganeti cluster has an extra IP address for cluster management. This IP address is created as an IP alias on whichever node is the master at that time. In our case, our management network is <code>br-lan</code>, thus we set <code>master-netdev</code> to be br-lan.</p></li>
308<li><p><code>--enabled-hypervisors</code> =&gt; We are using KVM as our hypervisor</p></li>
309<li><p><code>--uid-pool=120-130</code> =&gt; We are setting our user pool for VM execution to the users we created for VMs</p></li>
310<li><p><code>--prealloc-wipe-disks=yes</code> =&gt; This flag tells Ganeti to wipe disks prior to allocating space for new VMs. This will prevent a new VM from being able to recover latent data off block devices. If you are using SSD drives, then you should <em>not</em> use this feature as it will take a long time and is not necessary.</p></li>
311<li><p><code>-H kvm:security_model=pool,use_chroot=true</code> =&gt; These options configure the KVM hypervisor to execute VMs from within a chroot jail (to limit the KVM processes access to the host filesystem). It also configures KVM to execute VMs as users from the pool we created.</p></li>
312<li><p><code>-N link</code> =&gt; Here we set the default network to which the virtual machines we create will be attached. In our case, this will be <code>br-lan</code></p></li>
313<li><p><code>--vg-name</code> =&gt; This tells Ganeti the name of the Volume Group in which it can create Logical Volumes. If you don't specify it, for historical reasons it will expect a volume group called <code>xenvg</code></p></li>
314<li><p>Finally <code>gntZ.ws.nsrc.org</code> is the name of the cluster you are creating, and resolves to the cluster management IP address.</p></li>
315</ul>
316<p>If everything goes well, the command <code>gnt-cluster init</code> will take 5-6 seconds to complete. It will not output anything unless a problem occurred.</p>
317<p>The second command sets some hypervisor default parameters (<code>-H</code>):</p>
318<ul>
319<li><p><code>kernel_path</code> and <code>initrd_path</code> are set to empty string, so that instances boot like normal PCs, using the Master Boot Record</p></li>
320<li><p><code>vnc_bind_address</code> set to 0.0.0.0 allows VNC consoles to accept connections across the network</p></li>
321</ul>
322<p>These will be used by all instances that don't explicitly override them.</p>
323<p>Observe that there is an interface <code>br-lan:0</code> now configured:</p>
324<pre><code># ifconfig br-lan:0</code></pre>
325<p>The IP address should be that which the hostname <code>gntZ.ws.nsrc.org</code> resolves to.</p>
326<p>During the cluster creation, the node you ran the command on (the master node) was automatically added to the cluster. So we don't need to do that and can proceed directly to adding the other nodes in the cluster.</p>
327<h2 id="adding-nodes-to-the-cluster---master-node-only"><a href="#adding-nodes-to-the-cluster---master-node-only"><span class="header-section-number">13.1</span> Adding nodes to the cluster - MASTER NODE ONLY</a></h2>
328<p>So let's run the command to add the other nodes.</p>
329<p>Run this command only on the MASTER node of the cluster.</p>
330<pre><code># gnt-node add hostY.ws.nsrc.org</code></pre>
331<p>You will be warned that the command will replace the SSH keys on the destination machine (the node you are adding) with new ones. This is normal.</p>
332<pre><code>-- WARNING --
333Performing this operation is going to replace the ssh daemon keypair
334on the target machine (hostY) with the ones of the current one
335and grant full intra-cluster ssh root access to/from it</code></pre>
336<p>When asked if you want to continue connection, say <code>yes</code>:</p>
337<pre><code>The authenticity of host 'hostY (10.10.0.Y)' can't be established.
338ECDSA key fingerprint is a1:af:e8:20:ad:77:6f:96:4a:19:56:41:68:40:2f:06.
339Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes</code></pre>
340<p>When prompted for the root password for hostY, enter it:</p>
341<pre><code>Warning: Permanently added 'hostY' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
342root@hostY's password:</code></pre>
343<p>You may see the following informational message; you can ignore it:</p>
344<pre><code>Restarting OpenBSD Secure Shell server: sshd.
345Rather than invoking init scripts through /etc/init.d, use the service(8)
346utility, e.g. service ssh restart
347
348Since the script you are attempting to invoke has been converted to an
349Upstart job, you may also use the stop(8) and then start(8) utilities,
350e.g. stop ssh ; start ssh. The restart(8) utility is also available.
351ssh stop/waiting
352ssh start/running, process 2921</code></pre>
353<p>The last message you should see is this:</p>
354<pre><code>Tue Jan 14 01:07:40 2014  - INFO: Node will be a master candidate</code></pre>
355<p>This means that the machine you have just added into the node (hostY) can take over the role of configuration master for the cluster, should the master (hostX) crash or be unavailable.</p>
356<p>Repeat to add the third and/or fourth nodes of your cluster, again always running the commands on the master node.</p>
357<h2 id="verify-the-configuration-of-your-cluster"><a href="#verify-the-configuration-of-your-cluster"><span class="header-section-number">13.2</span> Verify the configuration of your cluster</a></h2>
358<p>Again only on the MASTER node of the cluster:</p>
359<pre><code># gnt-cluster verify</code></pre>
360<p>This will tell you if there are any errors in your configuration. It is possible you will see errors about &quot;orphan volumes&quot;:</p>
361<pre><code>Thu Feb  6 05:02:47 2014 * Verifying orphan volumes
362Thu Feb  6 05:02:47 2014   - ERROR: node hostX.ws.nsrc.org: volume ganeti/swap is unknown
363Thu Feb  6 05:02:47 2014   - ERROR: node hostX.ws.nsrc.org: volume ganeti/var is unknown
364Thu Feb  6 05:02:47 2014   - ERROR: node hostX.ws.nsrc.org: volume ganeti/root is unknown</code></pre>
365<p>This means logical volumes which were already created in the volume group but which ganeti does not know about or manage. You can avoid this error by telling ganeti to ignore those logical volumes:</p>
366<pre><code># gnt-cluster modify --reserved-lvs=ganeti/root,ganeti/swap,ganeti/var
367# gnt-cluster verify</code></pre>
368<p>If you still have any errors, please talk to the instructors.</p>
369<p>To see detailed information on how your cluster is configured, try these commands:</p>
370<pre><code># gnt-cluster info | more</code></pre>
371<p>Look at the output.</p>
372<pre><code># gnt-node list
373# gnt-node list-storage</code></pre>
374<p>You are done with the basic installation!</p>
375<h1 id="securing-the-vnc-consoles"><a href="#securing-the-vnc-consoles"><span class="header-section-number">14</span> Securing the VNC consoles</a></h1>
376<p>It would be good idea to make sure that the VNC consoles for the VMs are protected by a password.</p>
377<p>To do this, we can create a <em>cluster-wide</em> password for every VM console.</p>
378<p>This can later be overridden (changed) for each instance (VM).</p>
379<p>To create the cluster-wide password, run this command on the master:</p>
380<pre><code># echo 'xyzzy' &gt;/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password
381# chmod 600 /etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password
382# gnt-cluster modify -H kvm:vnc_password_file=/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password</code></pre>
383<p>You will probably see an error message:</p>
384<pre><code>Failure: command execution error:
385Hypervisor parameter validation failed on node hostY.ws.nsrc.org: Parameter 'vnc_password_file' fails validation: not found or not a file (current value: '/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password')</code></pre>
386<p>Hmm, we just added the file - but wait! It's telling us that the file is missing from the <em>slave</em> nodes.</p>
387<p>That's because we only created <code>/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password</code> on the master node. It needs to be on every node (host) since any one of them could become a cluster master in the future.</p>
388<p>There's a great command for this in ganeti: <code>gnt-cluster copyfile</code></p>
389<p><code>gnt-cluster copyfile</code> will take a file as a parameter, and will take care of copying it to every node in the cluster.</p>
390<p>In this case, we want our file <code>/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password</code> to be copied.</p>
391<p>To do this (on the master host - you will get a complaint if you try and run this on the other nodes):</p>
392<pre><code># gnt-cluster copyfile /etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password</code></pre>
393<p>You can now re-run the command from earlier:</p>
394<pre><code># gnt-cluster modify -H kvm:vnc_password_file=/etc/ganeti/vnc-cluster-password</code></pre>
395<p>That's it! Next up, we'll create some instances (VMs) and test migration.</p>
396<h1 id="optional-burn-in"><a href="#optional-burn-in"><span class="header-section-number">15</span> Optional: Burn-in</a></h1>
397<p>If you have spare time, you can run a &quot;burn-in&quot;. This is a comprehensive self-test which will check your cluster's ability to create, migrate and destroy virtual machines. It takes about half an hour, and reports its progress as it runs.</p>
398<p>The name of the VM to create (here &quot;testvm&quot;) should be unique. If you have any existing VM with this name, it will be destroyed. It also needs to resolve, so on each cluster node create an <code>/etc/hosts</code> entry like this:</p>
399<pre><code>192.0.2.1       testvm</code></pre>
400<p>Then run this on the cluster master node:</p>
401<pre><code># /usr/lib/ganeti/tools/burnin -o debootstrap+default \
402   -H kvm:kernel_path=/vmlinuz,initrd_path=/initrd.img \
403   --disk-size 1024m --no-name-check --no-ip-check testvm</code></pre>
404<div class="footnotes">
405<hr />
406<ol>
407<li id="fn1"><p><code>backports</code> are newer versions of the third party software originally packaged for your version of the operating system. These newer versions, packaged for a newer releases of Debian (or Ubuntu), have been made available (or backported) to the version of Debian we are using.<a href="#fnref1"></a></p></li>
408</ol>
409</div>
410</body>
411</html>