Guide to Administrative Procedures of the Internet Infrastructure - English

Zita Wenzel, Ph.D.
John Klensin, Ph.D.
Randy Bush
Steven Huter

Version 1.0

Network Startup Resource Center
University of Oregon Computing Center
Eugene, Oregon 97403 USA


Phone: + 1-541-346-3547
Fax: + 1-541-346-4397

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NCR-9616597. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Copyright 1998. The Network Startup Resource Center. All rights reserved.



This document describes the administrative procedures for countries (or networks) seeking to connect to the global Internet. This includes the steps and operations necessary for address space allocation and registration, routing database registration, and domain name registration. Where to find the required forms and instructions on how to complete them are included.

Who Should Read This Document

This document is intended for system engineers and technical managers of countries (or networks) that want to make a connection to the Internet. It assumes a basic knowledge of the Internet and networking.

This information is intended to help new or expanding networks understand and follow the Internet administrative procedures, and to provide assistance in filling out the various templates and registration forms. Please note that Appendix D is a glossary of acronyms.


This document will explain the following procedures:

  • Determine your organization type and current status.
  • Determine your administrative and technical contacts.
  • Determine your budget (and chargeback system) and choice of carriers.
  • Determine to whom you will connect.
  • Predict your current and projected address space needs.
  • Set-up your system to connect.
  • Request and register your address space allocation.
  • Request and register an autonomous system number, if needed.
  • Register with a routing database, if needed.
  • Register your country?s domain name, if needed.
  • Request and register your IN-ADDR.ARPA domain name, if needed.


This document assumes that you have examined different alternatives for physical connectivity and will assist you in navigating the Internet infrastructure so that you can use that connectivity. In choosing your upstream provider, you should consider their ability to deal with the Internet infrastructure.

What will you be doing and what role will you play?

  • If you are interested in connecting yourself (or a small organization), you are an Internet end-user. You will probably want to contact an Internet Service Provider (ISP) for most of your needs. Read section I and the first part of section II.
  • If you are interested in connecting your organization and in having address space to distribute within your network, you are an Internet high volume end-user. You will need more address space, but still may chose to work with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) for most of your needs. Read sections I and II.
  • If you are interested in connecting your organization, and in distributing addresses to your clients (who are end-users), you are an Internet Service Provider (ISP). You will need to contact a Local Internet Registry (if one is available, or your upstream provider). Read section I and continue reading the rest of this document.
  • If you are interested in distributing addresses to your clients and your clients are in turn distributing addresses, you are a Local Internet Registry or large ISP. You will probably need to contact the Regional Internet Registry in your geographical area. Read section I and continue reading the rest of this document.

I.Preparation of Systems and Network Planning


A. What do I need to connect to the Internet?

You can connect using dial-up or dedicated lines, and you can choose UUCP or IP. It is preferable to be running the UNIX operating system with TCP/IP over a dedicated line, although you can begin by using UUCP over a dial-up line. Although there are alternatives to UNIX, for historical reasons and robustness UNIX is more prepared to handle Internet connectivity. It is best to use TCP/IP internally even if you use another method for your external connectivity.

You will need to obtain an Internet Protocol (IP) address, or block of addresses, and a domain name. You may also need an Autonomous System Number (ASN) and an IN-ADDR.ARPA (reverse addressing) domain name. However, you may begin by having dial-up connectivity to another organization that has a mail exchange (MX) record for your site.

B. What connectivity medium should I choose?

You may be constrained by telecommunications regulations in your country as to your choice of dial-up, digital phone lines, fiber optic cable, or satellite suppliers (such as Intelsat, Savvis, PanAmSat, PeaceSat, ComStream, Cable and Wireless, Inc., NSN Network Services, Inc). If not, cost, bandwidth, and reliability will determine your choice.

C. What else do I need to do?

Before you do anything else:

1.Designate an administrative contact person and a technical contact person.

Choose one person to be the administrative contact and another person to be the technical contact. Write down their full names, email and postal addresses, and telephone and fax numbers (with country prefixes in the form + country code, city code, and local telephone number). The administrative contact should be a member of your organization and must reside in the country. The technical contact should be the key network support person and may be represented initially by someone outside of the country. Note that the technical contact must become a network support person residing in the country. The Internet Registries will request this information in the form of database entries called objects. For example, on the RIPE template, the administrative contact should be listed in the admin-c field in the database objects, and the technical contact in the tech-c field in the database objects (more information on database objects follows in section II D below).

2. Determine your cost-recovery charging scheme, if needed, so that you can sustain operations.

3. Diagram your organization chart and network topology.

Draw your organization chart. Determine the number of groups and end-users. Describe the size and shape of your current network. Design your addressing plan based on this information.

If you are restricted to using the local telecommunications company?s telephone circuit, choose your circuit carrier based on capacity and where it lands geographically. Consider an asymmetric circuit, e.g. 128kbps in and 64kbps out, if you expect to have more incoming traffic than outgoing (e.g., if most of the traffic is expected to originate from web servers outside your network).

4. Determine to whom you will connect.

5.Predict your address space and bandwidth requirements from end-user needs.

Since address space is finite and must be conserved, end-users are not permitted to reserve address space. Address space is based on what your needs are and how you justify those needs. Evaluation of IP address space requests is usually based on the documentation you provide for the following 12 months, as specified in the address space usage template and in the addressing plan you submit. Once you have used your assigned address space, you can request additional space based on an updated estimate of growth in your network.

You will need to justify your needs for address space by communicating your network design and should be prepared to clearly present your plan for effective use of the request. Determine your current and future user needs. Remember that if you are setting up a virtual web server designed to provide each customer with a domain name and a web server, then each customer will need a separate address. Allocations for points of presence (POP) throughout your region should also be determined. Predictions of user behavior can be based on analysis of published rates, interviews with individual and institutional subscribers, and case histories of other countries (see "History of the Internet in Thailand"). For example,


10 dialup modems

10 leased lines to organization?s LANs (size of the LANs)


5 dialup modems

Main POP

5 servers: mail, WWW, DNS, FTP, etc.

100 virtual domains

When you design your plan, you should do it for what you need now, what you believe you will need six months from now, and then one year from now.

6.Set up, connect, and test your hardware and software.

It is important to have your hardware and connectivity set up before contacting the appropriate agency for address space.

D. How do I get the documents referred to in this guide?

See Appendix B for details on obtaining the documents referred to in this guide.

E. References

For more information on TCP/IP, see RFC 2151, "A Primer on Internet and TCP/IP Tools and Utilities."

II.Address Space Allocation


Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (under the current version 4) are 32-bit numbers usually expressed as 4 octets in dotted decimal notation (for example,, which is the IP address for the Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC) web server). Public IP addresses make up the Internet address space. Addresses are allocated in a hierarchical manner and are designed to be unique.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) allocates large address blocks to the three Regional Internet Registries (IRs): ARIN, APNIC, and RIPE NCC who, in turn, allocate smaller blocks to Local Internet Registries or large ISPs. Local Internet Registries process the vast majority of address space assignments to ISPs and end-users

Contact the Internet service provider from whom you are getting your connectivity services (your upstream provider) with an address allocation request. It is important and required that you contact the first upstream provider, and not the Regional IR automatically. The first question the Regional Registry will ask you is why you cannot get address space from your upstream provider.

A. Who is my upstream provider?

If there is an ISP already functioning in your country, contact them directly. If you are to be the first connection, you may need to contact the Local or Regional IR for your geographical location, but you should contact your upstream provider first. Since address allocation is hierarchical, the administrative organizations and procedures represent this hierarchical structure, too. It is important not to skip a step in the hierarchy. Current Regional Registries include ARIN (the Americas, Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa), RIPE (Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East), and APNIC (the Pacific Rim and Asia). Contact information for these organizations is listed in Appendix A.

You should contact your Regional Internet Registry if 1) the ISP you are connecting to is unable or unwilling to provide address space, or 2) your particular connectivity requirements will result in non-local data to your customers possibly taking a different route over the Internet than data destined for your upstream provider?s customers.

B. How much address space should I ask for?

Regional IRs typically assign address blocks on the basis of an immediate need and projected utilization rate within one year. (If you are in the ARIN region, it is one year for end-user organizations and three months for ISPs.) Calculate your address space request accordingly. It is recommended to include the organization chart and network topology diagram referred to in section I, number 2 (above). Note that address space is allocated based on CIDR bit boundaries (see next section). The registries will need to understand your network engineering and deployment plans in significant detail before they can allocate address space. Therefore, the more detailed information you can provide, the more likely your request will be processed quickly.

If you obtain address space from your ISP, it is very likely that you will need to renumber should you decide to change upstream providers and/or if you grow considerably. As this renumbering may affect your customers (and their customers, etc.) if they are using dedicated lines, you should carefully weigh the cost/benefit involved in obtaining address space from your upstream provider.

The minimum routable block is often a /19, so if you plan on enlarging, it is better to pay the fees to the regional IR now and obtain a /19 block so that you will not have to renumber later. Note that if you are an ISP in the ARIN region, the current policy is that you must have used a /19 previously from your upstream ISP before going to ARIN. Or you must be multi-homed and show you have used a /21 and be willing to renumber and ARIN will issue a /21 from a reserved /19.

Remember that your upstream provider should route you if you ask them. You are a customer of the ISP, so if the service is not what you need you should change ISPs.


C. What is CIDR?

CIDR stands for Classless Inter-Domain Routing. Historically, IP addresses were assigned within classes: Class A (8 bits of network address, 24 bits of host address), Class B (16 bits of network address, 16 bits of host address), or Class C (24 bits of network address, 8 bits of host address). With the advent of CIDR, address space is now allocated and assigned on bit boundaries. Using CIDR means you are able to assign addresses corresponding with the number of hosts on the network, thereby conserving address space.

The following table illustrates this:

Addrs Bits Pref Class Mask
1 0 /32
2 1 /31
4 2 /30
8 3 /29
16 4 /28
32 5 /27
64 6 /26
128 7 /25
256 8 /24 1C
512 9 /23 2C
1K 10 /22 4C
2K 11 /21 8C
4K 12 /20 16C
8K 13 /19 32C


Number of addresses available; note that the number of addressable hosts normally is 2 fewer than this number because the host parts with all equal bits (all 0s, all 1s) are reserved.


Size of the allocation/assignment in bits of address space.


Length of the prefix covering this address space. This is sometimes used to indicate the size of an allocation/assignment.


Size of the address space in terms of class C network numbers.


The network mask defining the routing prefix in dotted quad notation.


D. How do I request and register address space?

You will need to send a database object to the appropriate registry. The registration databases are composed of records that are a series of fields separated by one or more blank lines; each field consists of two parts, the tag and the value. Do not modify the tags in the templates or errors will occur. Values for particular fields are specified in the templates; be careful to enter appropriate information.

The first line of a template denotes the record type. For example, an IP address template's first line is inetnum, therefore the record is known as an inetnum object. This first line is also used as the primary key for the record, therefore if you want to modify the first field of the record, the only way to do so is to delete the record entirely and add a new record with the corrected information.

For illustration, here is the RIPE inetnum object.

inetnum: [IP address range that will be assigned]
netname: Network-Name
descr: Network-Name Communications Company, Town
admin-c: NIC-handle of administrative contact
tech-c: NIC-handle of technical contact
country: ISO 3166-country-code
status: assigned pa (provider aggregatable) or assigned pi (provider independent)
changed: 960731
source: RIPE

For Countries in the APNIC Region

In order to obtain services from APNIC, you will need to become a member. APNIC-054 is the APNIC Membership Application. It is located at:

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:

APNIC Address Allocation Requests:

Once you have become a member, you can request IP address space using one of the three IP address request forms. If you are an organization that will use address space internally only (e.g., large enterprises such as universities, government ministries, large corporations, etc., choose #1 (End User Address Request). If you are an organization that plans to sub-delegate address space to customers (e.g., ISPs), choose #2 (ISP Address Request). If you are a confederation of ISPs (e.g., national NICs, etc.), choose #3 (Confederation Address Request).

1.APNIC-062 is the APNIC End User Internet Address Request Form. It is located at:

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:

2.APNIC-061 is the APNIC Internet Services Provider Internet Address Request Form. It is located at:

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:

3.Confederations are a means by which service providers can group together to provide resource allocation and registration services tailored to their specific local language and cultural requirements. For details on how to become an APNIC recognized confederation, please see APNIC Confederation Concepts and Requirements located at:

APNIC-063 is the APNIC Confederation Internet Address Request Form. It is located at:

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:

For Countries in the ARIN Region

Membership in ARIN is optional and not a requirement for receiving IP address space from the registry or from your Internet service provider. If you are a small end-user organization, choose #1. If you are an ISP, choose #2.

1. The form for network number assignments is located at:

2. The form for ISPs to obtain a CIDR block of IP network numbers is located at:

Send the completed form via email to ARIN at:

with ip request (if you chose #1) or isp cidr request (if you chose #2) in the subject field, as appropriate.

For Countries in the RIPE Region

RIPE NCC provides IP address space allocation only to contributing local Internet registries. For a description of the European Internet Registry policies and procedures, see RIPE-159, "European Internet Registry Policies and Procedures." It is located at:

RIPE-160 is Guidelines for Setting up a Local Internet Registry. It is located at:

If you have questions regarding setting up a new local IR, please contact the RIPE NCC at:

Once your local IR is established, you will get detailed information on how to submit requests to the RIPE NCC hostmasters.

Send the completed form via email to RIPE NCC at:

If you have general queries, please contact RIPE NCC at:

E. References

For more information on IP addresses, see RFC 1518, "An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR" and RFC 2050, "Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines."

III.Autonomous Systems (AS)


A. What is an ASN and do I need one?

Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) are used to facilitate routing in multi-homed environments. They are allocated when your routing policy is different from your provider?s. This generally means your site is multi-homed. In nearly all cases, unless you are multi-homed to more than one ISP, you will not need an ASN. If your routing policy does not differ from your service provider?s, you should use the service provider?s ASN. If there is constant traffic between you and a point in another country, you may want to connect to a second ISP in that country. Note that the resultant multi-homing generally makes the system more robust and may also change registry (and therefore request) relationships. It also increases costs greatly.

You may have to reduce traffic on your international lines by choosing to connect to a local exchange point. This allows traffic to stay within your country and off of expensive international links. If you implement this plan, you will be multi-homed and will need to read the autonomous systems and routing sections of this document.

B. How do I register an ASN?

Since the ASN space is quite limited, request only what you really need when you need it.

For Countries in the APNIC Region

APNIC-058 is the ASN Request Form. The form is located at:

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:

For Countries in the ARIN Region

A complete listing of assigned ASNs is located at:

The ASN registration form is located at:

Send the completed form via email to ARIN at:

with asn request in the subject field.

For Countries in the RIPE Region

The European Autonomous System Number Application Form and Supporting Notes form (RIPE-147) is located at:

Local IRs can send the completed form via email to RIPE at:

C. References

For more information on ASNs, see RFC 1930, "Autonomous Systems (AS)."

IV.Routing and Exchange Points


A. Do I need to register with a routing database?

You do not need to register with a routing database if you are simply carrying default routes to your (single) ISP. If you get your address space from an ISP, the ISP will register you. If you are connected to more than one ISP, then you should register with a routing database.

The more multi-homed you are, the larger your routing tables need to be. If you are connected to public exchange points (see examples below), or to more than one backbone ISP, you need to carry full routing tables and run without a default route.

Example European Exchange Points:

  • LINXLondon Internet Exchange
  • M9-IXMoscow Internet Exchange
  • NIX.CZ Neutral Internet Exchange, Czech Republic

Example Asia/Pacific Exchange Points:

  • AUIXAustralia Internet Exchange
  • HKIX Hong Kong Internet Exchange
  • JPIXJapan Internet Exchange

Example Americas Exchange Points:

  • MAE-EASTMetropolitan Area Ethernet - East
  • MAE-WESTMetropolitan Area Ethernet - West
  • PAIXPalo Alto Internet Exchange

Depending on the requirements of your international ISP, you may be able to have only a default route to them and specific routes to other suppliers if you have an in-country exchange point. Or they may require that you carry a full set of routes, treating your connection to the in-country exchange point as if it were a multi-homed connection.

B. What about CIDR and routing?

All registries use CIDR. All major router vendors (Cisco, 3com, Bay, Proteon, IBM, etc) support CIDR. CIDR Internet routers use only the prefix of the destination address to route traffic to a subnetted environment.

C. How do I choose a routing database?

The Internet Routing Registry (IRR) describes registries maintained by several national and international networking organizations. These currently include the RIPE Network Coordination Centre (NCC), ANS (Advanced Network Solutions, Inc.), internetMCI, Bell Canada (formerly CA*net), and the Routing Arbiter Database (RADB). The IRR is a way for ASNs to publicize their own intended routing policies without having to request a change from a go-between. The precedence of routing databases is as follows: IRR, ANS, CANET, MCI, RIPE, RADB.

With the exception of the Routing Arbiter Database, each registry serves a limited customer base. ANS, InternetMCI, and Bell Canada accept routing registrations for their customers alone, and the RIPE NCC oversees European registrations. The Routing Arbiter Database is unique in that it handles registrations for networking organizations not covered by the other routing registries. The Routing Arbiter also provides coordination among all the registries to ensure consistent representation of routing policies.

All Regional IRs need to register with one (only one) of the routing databases in the IRR. However, note that some ISPs do not use the regional registries or RADB.

D. How do I register in the RADB (The Americas)?

You need to submit three types of database records to the RADB: one or more maintainer objects, an AS object, and one or more route objects.

To specify the individuals who are allowed to update your records in the RADB, fill out one or more maintainer objects and send them via email to:

You need to submit a maintainer object before you can register any AS or route objects.

To describe the autonomous system that announces your routes, fill out an AS object and submit it via email to:

AS objects are also called aut-num objects.

To register your routes, fill out one or more route objects, and send them to RADB via email to:

E. References

For more information on routers, see RFC 1812, "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers."

See also Representation of IP Routing Policies in a Routing Registry (ripe-81++), RIPE-181. It is located at:

For more information on CIDR and routing, see RFC 1817, "CIDR and Classful Routing."

V.Domain Name Registration


A. What is a country domain?

The Domain Name System (DNS) specifies the naming of computers within a hierarchy. Top-Level Domain names (TLD) include generic TLDs (gTLDs) and two-letter country codes (ccTLDs). Examples of gTLDs include .edu (education), .com (commercial), .int (international), .org (organization), and .net (network).

Examples of two-letter country codes are .id for Indonesia, .ca for Canada, and .fr for France. ISO 3166 is used as a basis for country code top-level domain names. Country codes are determined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in cooperation with the United Nations. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) directly registers all country-code top-level domains, however it is not involved in the determination of country status. See ISO 3166 for more information and a listing of country codes (Appendix C).

A hierarchy of names may, and normally should be, created under each TLD. There is a wide variation in the structure of country domains. In some countries the structure is very flat, while in others there is substantial organization. In some country domains the second levels are generic categories, while in others they are based on political geography, and in still others, organization names are listed directly under the country code. Examples of second level generic categories are .ac (academic), .co (corporate), .go (government), and .re (research).

B. How do I register as a country domain?

First check that: (1) the domain is still available, (2) you have someone in your country as the administrative contact, and (3) your name servers are prepared (see RFC 1912 for information on common errors in preparing name servers).

The whois database maintained by InterNIC Registration Services (Network Solutions, Inc.) is currently the authoritative source for .com, .net, .org and .edu domain name information.

To apply to manage a country code top-level domain you should:

1.First, use the whois command to see if the domain is already registered.

whois domain

2.Request a Domain Name Agreement template from IANA by sending email to:

C. What if my country is already registered?

If your country is already registered, contact the country-code administrator to register a new second-level domain name.

Please note that ARIN, RIPE, and APNIC do not handle domain names (other than IN-ADDR.ARPA). If you want to register a domain name directly under a top-level domain (TLD), please contact the appropriate TLD administrator.

D. How do I resolve a country domain name dispute?

See RFC 1591 for domain name dispute information. Note that you will need to resolve the dispute internally before you contact IANA.

E. References

For more information on domain names, see RFC 1591, "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation", RFC 1713, "Tools for DNS Debugging", and RFC 1912, "Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors."

VI.IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain Delegation


A. What is an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain and do I need one?

An IN-ADDR.ARPA domain allows for mapping of IP addresses into domain names. This provides address to hostname reverse resolution. IN-ADDR domains are represented using the network number in reverse. For example, the IN-ADDR domain for network is represented as

You almost always need reverse resolution.

B. How do I register an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain?

You should ask your upstream provider about registering your IN-ADDR.ARPA domains. If you are working directly with a regional registry, see below.

For Countries in the APNIC Region

The IN-ADDR.ARPA Delegation Form is APNIC-059 and is located at:

CAUTION: You must set-up your name server to accept the delegation prior to submission of this form.

Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:

For Countries in the ARIN Region

IN-ADDR.ARPA domains are registered using an IN-ADDR.ARPA template. The form is located at:

CAUTION: Do not list your network number in reverse on the template.

Send the completed form via email to ARIN at:

with new in-addr, modify in-addr, or remove in-addr in the subject field, as appropriate.

For Countries in the RIPE Region

The domain object needs to be entered in the RIPE database before requesting reverse delegation.


descr: Our organization allocation

  • admin-c: NIC-handle of administrative contact (e.g., JLC-2RIPE)
  • tech-c: NIC-handle of technical contact
  • zone-c: NIC-handle of zone contact
  • nserver: Name server (e.g.,
  • nserver:
  • nserver:
  • changed: 960731
  • source: RIPE

NOTE: One of the name servers has to be

The domain object described above should be included in the request, as well as zone file entries for the zone above the one requested. For example, if a reverse delegation is requested for, the relevant zone file entries should be included for, whereas if a reverse delegation is requested for, the zone file entries should be included for

Send the completed object(s) via email to RIPE at:


A. Is there a way to prevent unauthorized changes to my objects?

Registries provide various security measures to prevent unauthorized changes to your database entries. Contact your regional IR for more information.

VIII.Network Optimization and Management

A. How do I optimize traffic on my network?

Contact the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA). CAIDA is a collaborative undertaking to promote greater cooperation in the engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable global Internet infrastructure. CAIDA provides a neutral framework to support these cooperative endeavors.

Or visit their web-site at:

Send email with questions or comments to:


Thanks to Brian Candler, David Conrad, Kim Hubbard, Daniel Karrenberg, Charles Musisi, and Jon Postel for reviewing this document; and to Hank Nussbacher for permission to reprint his table on CIDR.


  • [1]Malkin, G., LaQuey Parker, T., "Internet Users' Glossary", RFC 1392, Xylogics, Inc. and U. Texas, January 1993.
  • [2]Hinden, R., Editor, "Applicability Statement for the Implementation of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)", RFC 1517, Internet Engineering Steering Group, September 1993.
  • [3]Rekhter, Y. and Li, T. "An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR", RFC 1518, T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp, Cisco Systems, September 1993.
  • [4]Fuller, V., Li, T., Yu, J., and Varadhan, K. "Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and Aggregation Strategy", RFC 1519, BARRNet, Cisco Systems, MERIT, OARnet, September 1993.
  • [5]Rekhter, Y. and Topolcic, C. "Exchanging Routing Information Across Provider Boundaries in the CIDR Environment", RFC 1520, T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp., CNRI, September 1993.
  • [6]Postel, J. "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation", RFC 1591, USC/Information Systems Institute, March 1994.
  • [7]Wijnen, B., Carpenter, G., Curran, K., Sehgal, A. & Waters, G., "Simple Network Management Protocol Distributed Protocol Interface Version 2.0.", RFC 1592, T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp. and Bell Northern Research, Ltd., March 1994.
  • [8]Ramao, A. "Tools for DNS debugging", RFC 1713, FCCN, November 1994.
  • [9]Baker, F. "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", RFC 1812, Cisco Systems, June 1995.
  • [10]Rekhter, Y. "CIDR and Classful Routing", RFC 1817, Cisco Systems, August 1995.
  • [11]Barr, D. "Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors", RFC 1912, The Pennsylvania State University, February 1996.
  • [12]Hawkinson, J. and Bates, T. "Guidelines for Creation, Selection, and Registration of an Autonomous System", RFC 1930, BBN Planet Corporation, MCI, March 1996.
  • [13]Freed, N. and Borenstein, N. "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 2045, Innosoft and First Virtual, November 1996.
  • [14]Hubbard, K., Kosters, M., Conrad, D., Karrenberg, D., and Postel, J. "Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines", RFC 2050, InterNIC, APNIC, RIPE, ISI, November 1996.
  • [15]Kessler, G. and Shepard, S. "A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP Tools and Utilities", RFC 2151, June 1997.
  • [16]ISO 3166: Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries.
  • [17]Palasri, S., Huter, S., and Wenzel, Z. "The History of the Internet in Thailand", to be published by the National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC) of Thailand and the Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC).

Authors? Addresses

Zita Wenzel, Ph.D.
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
Office of University Computing
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

John Klensin, Ph.D.
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
Office of University Computing
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

Randy Bush
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
Office University Computing
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

Steven Huter
Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
Office of University Computing
1212-University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA

Appendix A:The Internet Agencies

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

IANA is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols and for all address space and name space used in the Internet. IANA allocates parts of the Internet address space to Regional Internet Registries (IRs) for distribution to Local IRs and ISPs. IANA is also responsible for the coordination and management of the Domain Name System (DNS).
Postal:P. O. Box 12607
Marina del Rey, CA 90295-3607


The InterNIC was a cooperative activity between the National Science Foundation, General Atomics, AT&T, and Network Solutions, Inc. Network Solutions provided IP address allocation before ARIN was founded. Currently, InterNIC registers second-level domain names under the generic top-level domains.
Postal:Network Solutions, Inc.
ATTN: InterNIC Registration Services
505 Huntmar Park Dr.
Herndon, VA 20170 US

Regional Internet Registries (IRs)

Regional IRs operate in large geopolitical regions such as continents. Currently, there are three Regional IRs: ARIN for the Americas, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa; RIPE NCC for Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East; and APNIC for the Asia Pacific region. The specific duties of the Regional IRs include coordination and representation of all local Internet Registries in their respective region.


Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) is a non-profit Internet registry for the Asia Pacific region. APNIC provides IP address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN) assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.
Tokyo Central P.O. Box 351
Tokyo, 100-91, Japan


The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is a non-profit Internet registry that was established for the purpose of administration and registration of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers to the geographical areas that were managed by Network Solutions, Inc. (InterNIC). These areas include, but are not limited to, North America, South America, sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean region. ARIN provides IP address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN) assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.
Postal:4506 Daly Drive
Suite 200
Chantilly, VA 20151


Reseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) is a non-profit Internet registry for the European, North African, and Middle East regions. RIPE NCC provides IP address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN) assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.

Postal:Singel 258
1016 AB Amsterdam
The Netherlands

Appendix B:Documentation

Internet Documentation

For general Internet documentation, ftp to and cd to the /rfc subdirectory for Request for Comments documents.

Details on obtaining these documents via ftp or email may be obtained by sending an email message to:

with the message body help: ways_to_get_rfcs (or fyis or stds). For example:

Subject: getting rfcs
help: ways_to_get_rfcs

Documents, Templates, and Forms

The documents, templates, and forms referenced in this guide are available from the document stores in the directories listed in the URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). Organizations without connectivity wishing to obtain copies of the referenced documents should contact their Local IR to arrange postal delivery of one or more of the documents. Note that fees may be associated with the delivery of hardcopy versions of documents.

The document stores can be accessed in two ways:

1. Via anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

Using your ftp application, connect to the appropriate host computer shown below using your email address as the password. Use the cd (change directory) command to connect to the appropriate subdirectory, then use the get command to retrieve the specific file. For example:

  • ftp (for countries in the Asia/Pacific region)
  • ftp (for countries in the Americas)
  • ftp (for countries in Europe or North Africa)
  • login: anonymous
  • password: your_email_address
  • cd netinfo
  • get domain_info.txt
  • Via electronic mail.

Send email to the appropriate address shown below with the message body as specified.

APNIC Documentation

For APNIC documents and templates, connect to and cd to /apnic/docs.

Or send email to:

with UNIX commands (open, dir, cd, get, quit, etc.) as the body of the message. For more help, send an email message to APNIC at the same address with a message body consisting of help.

ARIN Documentation

For ARIN templates and documents, connect to and cd to /templates.

Or send email to:

A users? guide is available by sending the message containing only the word help in the subject field of the message. In the subject field, request the type of service you wish followed by any needed arguments. The message body is normally ignored. Large files will be divided into smaller separate messages.

The following services are currently available:

  • netinfo xxx
  • xxx is a file name or the word index
  • templates xxx
  • xxx is the template required (e.g., asntemplate.txt)
  • policy xxx
  • xxx is a file name or the word index

RIPE Documentation

For RIPE documents and forms, connect to and cd to /docs or cd to /forms.

Or send email to:

  • with send help in the body of the message.

Appendix C:Country Codes

The ISO 3166 list of two-letter country codes is available at:

The web-site for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is:

The list is also available at: and

Appendix D:Acronyms

ANSAdvanced Network Services, Inc.

ASNAutonomous System Number

APNICAsia Pacific Network Information Center

ARINAmerican Registry for Internet Numbers

ASAutonomous System

CANETCanada Net

CIDRClassless Inter-Domain Routing

CIXCommercial Internet Exchange

CWIXCable and Wireless Internet Exchange

DNSDomain Name System

DSUData Service Unit

FYIInternet For Your Information document

gTLDGeneric Top-Level Domain

IANAInternet Assigned Numbers Authority

IPMAInternet Performance Measurement and Analysis

InterNICInternet Network Information Center

IPInternet Protocol

IRInternet Registry

IRRInternet Routing Registry

ISOInternational Organization for Standardization

ISPInternet Service Provider

LINXLondon Internet Exchange

MIMEMultipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

NAPNetwork Access Point

NCCNetwork Coordination Centre

NICNetwork Information Center

NSFNational Science Foundation

NSRCNetwork Startup Resource Center

POPPost Office Protocol

POPPoint of Presence

RADBRouting Arbiter Data Base

RFCRequest for Comments

RIPEReseaux IP Européens

SMTPSimple Mail Transfer Protocol

STDInternet Standards document

STIXSingapore Telecom Internet Exchange

TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TLDTop-Level Domain

VLSMVariable Length Subnet Mask